Table 1

Population-based studies on all symptomatic fractures in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

AuthorsCountrySettingNumber of patientsFemale gender (%)Mean age (years)Follow-up duration (years)Relative riskRisk factors
Ramsey-Goldman et al2USAUniversity hospital70210045.48.24.7Older age at lupus diagnosis Duration GC use
Rhew et al10USAUniversity hospital10010044.123.3Alcohol use
Bultink et al11UKGeneral practitioners database (CPRD)4.3438946.76.41.22GC use in previous 6 months Disease duration Seizures Cerebrovascular event Previous fracture
Ekblom-Kullberg et al7FinlandUniversity hospital222 (204 women)924713.11.8 (females)Age Duration GC use Comorbidity
  • CPRD, Clinical Practice Research Datalink; GC, glucocorticoids.