Table 1

Randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of bisphosphonates in complex regional pain syndrome type I: characteristics of the trials

ReferencesJadad ScoreTreatmentNumber of patients (F)Age (years)Diagnostic criteriaDisease duration (weeks or months)
Mean (SD)
Follow-up (days)Additional treatment
ActiveControlMean (SD) or RangeDouble-blind (Open-label)
Adami S et al313Alendronate 7.5 mg intravenous for 3 daysPlacebo intravenous for 3 days20 (12)39–80KozinALD: 16 (17) weeks
PLB: 19 (19) weeks
14 (+14)Physical therapy
Varenna M et al215Clodronate 300 mg intravenous for 10 daysPlacebo intravenous for 10 days32 (19)56 (9)Kozin4.0 (2.3) months40 (+140)None
Robinson JN et al323Pamidronate 60 mg intravenous single timePlacebo intravenous single time27 (9)30–60IASP21.6 (NR) months90Paracetamol, codeine, dextropropoxyphene
Manicourt DH et al335Alendronate 40 mg oral for 56 daysPlacebo oral for 56 days39 (21)45 (12)IASP
ALD: 7 (2) months
PLB: 8 (3) months
84 (+84)Physical therapy
Varenna M et al345Neridronate 100 mg intravenous four timesPlacebo intravenous four times82 (53)NRD: 58 (13)
PLB: 57 (10)
BudapestNRD: 4.7 (4.1) weeks
PLB: 5.0 (4.6) weeks
40 (+50)NSAIDs, paracetamol
  • ALD, alendronate; CRPS, complex regional pain syndrome; Double-blind, during the double-blind phase of the study; F, female; iv, intravenous; IASP, International Association for the Study of Pain; NR, not reported; NRD, neridronate; Open-label, during the open-label phase of the study; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PLB, placebo.