Table 4

Treatment effectiveness, secondary outcomes (values are unstandardised coefficients except CPG, which are proportional ORs)*

End of treatment3 months post-treatment24 months post-treatmentTreatment–time interaction (slope)
CPG
 tCBT0.4†0.5†0.71.02
(0.3 to 0.8)(0.3 to 0.8)(0.3 to 1.3)(0.99 to 1.05)
 Exercise0.70.81.31.02
(0.5 to 1.1)(0.5 to 1.2)(0.7 to 2.4)(0.99 to 1.05)
 Combined treatment0.5†0.5‡0.91.03
(0.3 to 0.8)(0.3 to 0.8)(0.4 to 1.8)(1.00 to 1.06)
GHQ
 tCBT−1.0‡−1.0‡−1.0‡0.00
(−1.8 to −0.3)(−1.8 to −0.3)(−1.9 to −0.1)(−0.03 to 0.04)
 Exercise−0.9‡−0.9‡−0.50.02
(−1.7 to −0.2)(−1.6 to −0.2)(−1.4 to 0.3)(−0.02 to 0.05)
 Combined treatment−1.0‡−0.8‡0.00.04‡
(−1.7 to −0.2)(−1.5 to −0.1)(−0.9 to 0.9)(0.00 to 0.08)
Fatigue
 tCBT−2.6‡−2.4‡−1.00.06
(−4.4 to −0.7)(−4.1 to −0.6)(−3.0 to 1.1)(−0.01 to 0.14)
 Exercise−2.4‡−2.2‡−1.20.05
(−4.1 to −0.7)(−3.9 to −0.6)(−3.2 to 0.8)(−0.02 to 0.12)
 Combined treatment−4.4†−4.0†−1.50.12†
(−6.1 to −2.6)(−5.7 to −2.3)(−3.5 to 0.5)(0.04 to 0.20)
VPMI passive coping
 tCBT−2.0‡−2.0‡−2.7‡−0.03
(−3.7 to −0.2)(−3.7 to −0.4)(−4.7 to −0.7)(−0.10 to 0.04)
 Exercise−2.0‡−2.0‡−1.30.03
(−3.6 to −0.3)(−3.5 to −0.3)(−3.2 to 0.6)(−0.04 to 0.10)
 Combined treatment−3.1†−3.1†−3.1†0.00
(−4.7 to −1.5)(−4.7 to −1.5)(−5.0 to −1.2)(−0.07 to 0.07)
VPMI active coping
 tCBT0.80.80.80.00
(−0.1 to 1.7)(0.0 to 1.6)(−0.3 to 1.8)(−0.05 to 0.04)
 Exercise1.1‡1.1‡0.7−0.02
(0.3 to 2.0)(0.3 to 1.9)(−0.3 to 1.8)(−0.06 to 0.03)
 Combined treatment1.3†1.3†0.8−0.02
(0.5 to 2.1)(0.5 to 2.0)(−0.2 to 1.8)(−0.07 to 0.02)
Sleep problems
 tCBT−1.8‡−1.7‡−0.80.04
(−3.0 to −0.6)(−2.8 to −0.5)(−2.3 to 0.6)(−0.02 to 0.10)
 Exercise−1.2‡−1.2‡−0.90.01
(−2.4 to −0.1)(−2.3 to −0.1)(−2.3 to 0.5)(−0.04 to 0.07)
 Combined treatment−1.5‡−1.4‡−0.80.03
(−2.6 to −0.3)(−2.5 to −0.2)(−2.2 to 0.6)(−0.03 to 0.08)
TSK
 tCBT−1.4−1.5−1.9‡−0.02
(−3.0 to 0.1)(−3.0 to 0.0)(−3.6 to −0.2)(−0.08 to 0.04)
 Exercise−1.5−1.4−1.20.01
(−3.0 to 0.0)(−2.9 to 0.0)(−2.9 to 0.5)(−0.04 to 0.07)
 Combined treatment−2.4†−2.5†−2.6†−0.01
(−3.9 to −1.0)(−3.9 to −1.0)(−4.3 to −0.9)(−0.06 to 0.05)
  • *Comparison group—treatment as usual. All models are adjusted for age, sex, centre, baseline CPG and GHQ scores, and baseline levels of outcome of interest.

  • †p<0.004, with correction for multiple testing.

  • ‡p<0.05.

  • CPG, Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; TAU, treatment as usual; tCBT, telephone cognitive behavioural therapy; TSK, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia; VPMI, Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory.