Table 2

Characteristics of the 49 included studies

AuthorName of studyDiabetes definitionOA definitionSTROBE study quality (%)Outcome
Stürmer et al16Ulm OA_Arthroplasty or KL ≥257NP DM/OA
Lanas et al21LOGICA__63NP DM/OA
Reeuwijk et al23__ACR77NP DM/OA
Adams et al26_HbA1c ≥6.5% or codes_88NP DM/OA
Shirinsky and Shirinsky28*OAICodes_NANP DM/OA
Jamsen et al43PERFECTCodes or drugs prescription registerCodes67NP DM/OA
Baker et al45*___NANP DM/OA
Peniston et al47__KL ≥3, ACR58NP DM/OA
Philbin54_FBG >110 mg/dL on 2 samples taken at least 24 h apartQuestionnaire, radiological Danielson scale73NP2
Denko et al56__Pain and rx42Glyc in the OA population
Cimmino et al58_FBG ≥140 mg/dL (National Diabetes data group of the US National Institutes of Health (USA)+ WHO)KL ≥2 and pain52NP2 and glyc in the OA and control populations
Lindberg and Nilssson59__Rx before arthroplasty36NP2
Dequeker et al60___33Glyc in the OA and control populations
Rahman et al61CCHSQuestionnaireQuestionnaire73NP2
Wang et al62*__ReportedNANP2
Horn et al63__KL55KL in the DM and non-DM, OA populations (semiquantitative scale)
Ray et al19_WHO criteria: FBG >7 mmol/L or 2 h PPFG glucose >11.1 mmol/L after oral glucose test or diabetes symptoms and FPG >11.1 mmol/LClinical, Rx, ACR50NP OA/DM
Sarkar et al22_FBG, PPBG and HbA1cClinical and Rx45NP OA/DM
Miksch et al24ELSIDQuestionnaireQuestionnaire75NP OA/DM
Ladjimi et al55_Glyc and HbA1cClinical and Rx45NP2
Nieves-Plaza et al57_National Diabetes Data Group Classification: symptoms+FBG >200 mg/dL or FBG >126 mg/dL or 2 h PPBG >200 mg/dL after an oral glucose testACR82NP2
Inoue et al20Iwaki Health Promotion ProjectHbA1c >5.8%KL ≥269NP2 and HbA1c in the OA and non-OA populations
Puenpatom and Victor7NHANES IIIFBG ≥110 mg/dL, codes, history of diabetes or drugs for diabetesCodes, Rx or history of OA by physician69NP2
Dahaghin et al25RotterdamFBG or PPBG ≥11.0 mmol/L or drugs for diabetesKL ≥2 (hand Rx) and clinical (ACR)78NP2
Martin et al27BLSAFBG ≥140 mg/dL or 2 h PPBG ≥200 mg/dL or drugs for diabetesKL ≥266FBG and PPBG in the OA and non-OA populations
Hart et al29_History of diabetes or FBG ≥12.8 mmol/LKL ≥2 (knee Rx)78Glyc in the OA and/or DM population (semiquantitative scale)
Schett et al10Bruneck studyFBG ≥7 mmol/L or 126 mg/dL, or drugs for diabetes or HbA1c ≥6.5% or PPBG ≥11.1 mmol/L or 200 mg/dLArthroplasty for hip or knee OA81NP2 and Glyc in the OA and non-OA populations
Navarro et al34*_Database of public health service_NANP2
Orellana et al36*_Database of public health service_NANP2
Anderson and Felson38HANES IHistory of diabetesKL ≥2 (knee Rx) and pain ≥1 month81OR of OA in the DM population
Silveri et al39_FBGClinical and Rx56NP2
Perruccio et al40*_Reported_NANP DM/OA
Yoshimura et al8ROADHbA1c ≥5.5% or drugs for diabetesKL ≥2 (knee Rx)91HbA1c in the OA and non-OA populations
Davies-Tuck et al44MCCSFBG ≥7 mmol/L or reported (exclusion)ACR73Glyc, cartilage volume and bone marrow lesions
Siviero et al46ILSAFBG ≥140 mg/dL or drugs for diabetesHistory and clinical55NP2
Engstrom et al48MDCFBG ≥5.6 mmol/LCodes: arthroplasty for hip or knee OA79NP2 (data for knee and data for hip)
Frey et al17Rancho Bernardo CohortFBG ≥140 mmol/L twofold or PPBG ≥200 mg/dL after an oral glucose testClinical (nurse examination) or history of OA70NP2 (data for men and data for women)
Bagge et al49_FBG ≥8.3 mmol/L or drugs for diabetesKL ≥2 (knee and hand)67NP OA/DM (but NP DM at baseline and NP OA at end point)
Haugen et al50FraminghamFBG ≥126 mg/dL or PPBG ≥200 mg/dLClinical and Rx (KL ≥2)84NP2 (data for radiological OA and symptomatic OA, exclusive groups)
Sowers et al51MBHMSHistory of diabetes or drugs for diabetes or FBG >126 mg/dLKL ≥2 (knee Rx)70Glyc for the OA and non-OA population
Visser et al52 53*NEOFBG ≥5.6 mmol/Lor drugs for diabetesACR84OR of Glyc and HbA1c in the OA population
Wang et al41Inner Mongolia OA StudyQuestionnaireClinical and Rx (KL ≥2)69Number of patients with OA in the general population but no data on the number of patients with diabetes
Shin42KNHANES V-1FBG ≥100 mg/dL or drugs for diabetesRx (KL ≥2)74NP2
Cimmino et al30AMICAQuestionnaireACR53NP DM/OA
Magnusson et al32MUSTQuestionnaireACR and hand Rx (≥1 joint with KL ≥2)74NP DM/OA
Conaghan et al33SORTQuestionnaireClinical72NP DM/OA
Zullig et al35Patient and provider interventions for managing OA in primary careReportedACR or Rx66NP DM/OA
Bija et al37ReportedACR or Rx with KL but no cut-off (including KL=1)72NP DM/OA
  • *Data only from abstract of congress.

  • †One cross-sectional study and one prospective study (the cross-sectional study was selected for analysis).

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology criteria; CCHS, Canadian Community Health Survey; DM, diabetes mellitus; ELSID, Evaluation of a Large Scale Implementation of Disease Management Programmes for patients with type 2 diabetes; FBG, fasting blood glucose; Glyc, glycaemia; HANES I or NHANES III or KNHANES, The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I or III or Korean NHANES; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin; ILSA, The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging; KL, Kellgren and Lawrence scale; MBHMS, Michigan Bone Health & Metabolism Study; MCCS, The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study; MDC, the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study; MUST, Musculoskeletal pain in Ullensaker study; NEO, The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study; NA, not available; NP DM/OA, number of patients with DM in the OA population only; NP OA/DM, number of patients with OA in the DM population only; NP2, number of patients with OA and/or DM in the disease group and control group→ need to calculate prevalence and OR; OAI, Osteoarthritis Initiative; OA, osteoarthritis; PPBG, postprandial blood glucose; ROAD, Research on Osteoarthritis Against Disability; Rx, radiography; SORT, Study of osteoarthritis Real World Therapies; STROBE, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (NA if the data were issued only from congress).