Table 1

Developmental status of new biologicals for RA treatment

TargetAgentDevelopmental status
IL-6Sarilumab (human mAb against IL-6Rα)Phase II, phase III published26 27; several phase II and III trials ongoing ( presented with abstracts)28–30
Sirukumab (human mAb against IL-6)Phase II published;31 some of phase II presented with abstracts;70–72 several phase III trials ongoing (
Olokizumab (human mAb against IL-6)Phase IIb published;32 3 phase II trials completed (no results posted)73–75
Clazakizumab (human mAb against IL-6)Phase II trial published;33 1 phase IIb trial abstract presented;34 1 phase IIb trial, active not recruiting76
ALX-0061 (monovalent IL-6R targeting nanobody)Phase I/II study abstract presented35
1 phase II combination therapy77 and 1 phase IIb monotherapy trials recruiting78
B cellsOfatumumab (human mAb against CD20)Phase I/II studies and phase III trial published39–41
Tabalumab (human mAb against BAFF)Phase II trials published;42–44 several phase III trials ongoing, no results posted (, however some presented with abstracts45–47
IL-17Ixekizumab (human mAb against IL-17)Phase I, phase II published48 49
 Secukinumab (human mAb against IL-17)Phase II published;50 several phase III trials ongoing (
Brodalumab (human mAb against IL-17R)Phase Ib published;51 1 phase II published;52 1 phase II terminated for lack of efficacy in RA79
IL-12/23Ustekinumab (human mAb against IL-12/23 p40)Phase II completed, has results57
CNTO 1959 (human mAb against IL23p19)Phase II completed, has results57
GM-CSFMOR103 (human mAb against, GM-CSF)Phase Ib/IIa published56
Mavrilimumab (human mAb against GM-CSFR)Phase I and phase IIa published;53 54 phase IIb abstract presented;55 one phase II trial completed, no results posted;80 1 phase II trial recruiting81
IL-21NNC114-006 (NN8828) (human mAb against IL-21)2 phase I completed, no results posted;59 60 phase II completed, no results posted61
IL-20NNC109-0012 (human mAb against IL-20)2 phase I abstracts presented;63 64 phase IIa abstracts presented;65 66 2 phase II trials terminated, no results posted;67 68 1 phase II trial withdrawn, no results posted69
  • BAFF, B cell-activating factor; GM-CSF, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSFR, GM-CSF receptor; IL-6R, interleukin 6 receptor; mAb, monoclonal antibody; RA, rheumatoid arthritis.