Table 1

Cohen’s effect size for several outcomes of non-pharmacological interventions

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  • (+): Positive trial; (−): negative trial.

  • Only studies with a low or an unclear risk of bias are presented.

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  • *Cohen’s effect size could not be calculated for 3 studies as the results are not shown as mean (SD).

  • †Active axSpA (BASDAI≥3.5).

  • ‡Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.

  • ASAS, Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society; ASDAS, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score; axSpA, axial spondyloarthritis; BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; BASMI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index; mNY, modified New York criteria; NR, not reported; SD, standard deviation; VAS, visual analogue scale.