Table 2

Efficacy of non-biological drugs (RCTs and CCTs)

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  • ASAS 2009 classification criteria.6

  • Risk of bias according to the Cochrane tool.24

  • Amor classification criteria.79

  • (+): Positive trial; (−): negative trial; Δ: change between baseline and follow-up.

  • *The results are just shown for this subgroup.

  • †At least 75 mg/day diclofenac has been taken by every patient; switching to another NSAID was allowed.

  • ‡At both time points (6 and 12 months) no significant differences between both groups in the ASAS20.

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; ASAS, Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society; ASAS20, 20% improvement according to the ASAS response criteria; axSpA, axial spondyloarthritis; BASDAI 50, 50% improvement of the initial Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; CCT, clinical controlled trial; CRP, C reactive protein; ESSG, European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group;80 mNY, modified New York criteria;81 mSASSS, modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score; NR, not reported; NS, not significant; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PatGA, patient’s global assessment; RCT, randomised controlled trial; VAS, visual analogue scale.