Table 5

Main characteristics of diagnostic studies on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) and CT angiography (CTA) in extracranial large vessel giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu arteritis (TAK)

Study IDnn Female (%)Inclusion criteriaReference standardn Final diagn GCA (%)n TAB+
n LV-GCAInvestigated structuresElementary lesionsRoB
  Blockmans et al 41 6938 (55)Age ≥45 years,
ESR ≥40 mm/h, headache, fever, PMR, weight loss
TAB13 (19)13 (100)NRAorta, carotid, subclavian, femoral, popliteal, tibialContrast enhancement (score (0–3)/vascular bed)Mod
  Lariviere et al 42 2416 (67)Suspected GCA+TABClinical diagn 6 m15 (63)6 (40)NRAorta, supra-aortic branches, iliac, femoralContrast enhancement
(SUVmax vascular bed/SUVmean blood)
  Lariviere et al 42 2416 (67)Suspected GCA+TABClinical diagn 6 m15 (63)6 (40)NRAorta, supra-aortic branchesWall thickening score (0–3)Low
  Yamada et al 56 25NRSuspected TAKCA20 (80)NAAorta, brachiocephalic trunk, subclavian, carotid, pulmonary trunkLuminal changes
wall thickening (>1 mm)+luminal changes
  • CA, conventional angiography; diagn, diagnosis; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; LV, large vessel; m, months; mod, moderate; n, number of finally included patients in analysis; NA, not applicable; n female, number of females; n final diagn GCA, number of patients finally diagnosed with GCA; NR, not reported; n LV-GCA, number of GCA patients with large vessel involvement; n TAB+, number of positive temporal artery biopsy results in finally diagnosed GCA patients; PMR, polymyalgia rheumatica; RoB, overall appraisal of risk of bias and concerns about applicability (arbitrarily defined) (high, in the case of concern on ≥5/10 RoB items or concern on 3/3 applicability items out of the QUADAS-2 tool; moderate, in case of concern on 4/10 RoB items and/or concern on ≥1/3 applicability items out of the QUADAS-2 tool, low, in case of concern on ≤3/3 risk of bias items and no concern about applicability); Sens, sensitivity; Spec, specificity; SUV, standardised uptake value; TAB+, patients with a positive histology suggesting vasculitis.