Table 3

Risk of bias of randomised controlled trials

Random sequence generation
(selection bias)
Allocation concealment (selection bias)Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias)Blinding of outcome assessment
(detection bias)
Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias)Selective reporting (reporting bias)
Jover et al8LULULL
Salvarani et al47LLLLLU
Cimmino et al48LULLLU
Seror et al56LLLLHU
  • H, high risk of bias; L, lower risk of bias; U, unclear risk of bias.