Table 3

OR with 95% CI of developing RA for subjects with different combinations of alcohol and smoking habits, compared with never smokers who consume alcohol, in total and stratified by HLA-SE status

Non-drinkingSmokingRAACPA-positive RAACPA-negative RA
CA/CO*OR (95% CI)†CA/CO*OR (95% CI)†CA/CO*OR (95% CI)†
742/10001.0 (reference)439/10001.0 (reference)303/10001.0 (reference)
+1681/14051.7 (1.5 to 1.9)1133/14052.0 (1.7 to 2.3)548/14051.2 (1.0 to 1.4)
+371/2242.1 (1.7 to 2.6)215/2242.2 (1.7 to 2.8)156/2242.0 (1.5 to 2.5)
++559/2073.5 (2.9 to 4.3)406/2074.8 (3.8 to 5.9)153/2072.0 (1.5 to 2.6)
0.2 (0.03 to 0.4)0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)−0.08 (−0.4 to 0.3)
HLA-SEnegative
214/4761.0 (reference)72/4761.0 (reference)142/4761.0 (reference)
+438/6631.5 (1.2 to 1.9)187/6632.1 (1.5 to 2.8)251/6631.4 (1.0 to 1.8)
+120/1162.2 (1.6 to 3.0)44/1162.6 (1.6 to 4.1)76/1162.3 (1.6 to 3.3)
++121/1042.4 (1.8 to 3.4)47/1043.2 (2.1 to 5.1)74/1042.4 (1.6 to 3.5)
−0.04 (−0.4 to 0.4)−0.09 (-0.5 to 0.4)−0.1 (−0.6 to 0.4)
HLA-SEpositive
528/5241.0 (reference)367/5241.0 (reference)161/5241.0 (reference)
+1243/7421.7 (1.5 to 2.0)946/7422.0 (1.7 to 2.4)297/7421.2 (1.0 to 1.5)
+251/1082.2 (1.7 to 2.9)171/1082.3 (1.7 to 3.1)80/1081.9 (1.3 to 2.8)
++438/1034.1 (3.2 to 5.4)359/1035.3 (4.0 to 7.1)79/1031.9 (1.3 to 2.8)
0.3 (0.1 to 0.5)0.4 (0.2 to 0.6)−0.1 (−0.6 to 0.4)
  • *Number of exposed CA and CO.

  • †Adjusted for age, gender, residential area, ancestry, HLA-SE status and study.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, gender, residential area, ancestry and study.

  • ACPA, anticitrullinated protein antibodies; CA, cases; CO, controls; HLA-SE, human leucocyte antigen-shared epitope; RA, rheumatoid arthritis.