Table 2

MSUS status in relation to the stages of RA development

Non-active MSUS
Active MSUS
OR (95% CI)
1. FDR without risk factors28171.1 (0.6 to 2.2)
2. Genetic risk factors (1 or 2 copies of SE) or systemic autoimmunity associated with RA (ACPA positivity), but without arthralgias or arthritis28100.6 (0.3 to 1.3)
3. Inflammatory arthralgias or self-reported symptoms associated with possible RA, but without clinical arthritis (some ACPA-positive)†90420.7 (0.5 to 1.2)
4. Unclassified arthritis (at least one swollen joint) (some ACPA-positive)31271.8 (1.0 to 3.3)‡
  • The stages of RA development were defined as mutually exclusive for the purpose of this analysis. Active MSUS defined as a total B-mode score >8, including at least one joint with synovitis of grade 2 or 3, or Doppler score greater than 1.

  • *Univariable logistic regression analysis.

  • †Inflammatory arthralgias or self-reported symptoms associated with possible RA (Connective Tissue Disease Screening Questionnaire, CSQ >3).

  • ‡P<0.05.

  • ACPA, anticitrullinated protein antibodies; FDR, first-degree relative; MSUS, musculoskeletal ultrasound; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SE, shared epitope.