Table 4

Determinants of CV-related mortality

VariableBivariate
HR (95% CI)
P valueMultivariate
HR (95% CI)
P value
Age*1.12 (1.09 to 1.14)<0.0011.08 (1.06 to 1.11)<0.001
Sex (male)0.30 (0.17 to 0.53)<0.001
Clinical evolution
 Tophi only or mono1
 Oligo0.98 (0.43 to 2.27)0.968
 Polyarticular2.43 (0.10 to 5.37)0.028
Disease duration*0.99 (0.96 to 1.02)0.527
Number of flares in the previous year1.03 (1.00 to 1.06)0.080
sUA (baseline)*1.39 (1.24 to 1.57)<0.0011.22 (1.08 to 1.38)0.001
Tophi2.83 (1.82 to 4.40)<0.0011.65 (1.02 to 2.66)0.040
Radiological assessment
 Normal1
 Joint damage2.97 (1.32 to 6.69)0.009
Comorbidity and risk factors
 BMI1.01 (0.95 to 1.07)0.727
 Creatinine (baseline)*1.21 (1.07 to 1.38)0.003
 Ethanol consumption0.35 (0.19 to 0.65)0.001
 Hypertension5.83 (3.27 to 10.40)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus3.90 (2.52 to 6.04)<0.0011.69 (1.05 to 2.72)0.029
 Hyperlipidaemia0.58 (0.37 to 0.92)0.0220.58 (0.35 to 0.95)0.032
 Previous CV event10.14 (6.02 to 17.05)<0.0013.82 (2.08 to 6.99)<0.001
 Diuretic treatment7.05 (4.40 to 11.32)<0.001
Kaiser strata
 Without risk factors1
 1–2 chronic diseases1.45 (0.13 to 16.00)0.761
 3–4 chronic diseases3.55 (0.41 to 30.37)0.248
 ≥5 chronic diseases9.19 (1.13 to 74.83)0.038
Follow-up and treatment
Prophylaxis
 None1
 Anakinra0.64 (0.06 to 7.14)0.720
 Colchicine1.05 (0.24 to 4.54)0.952
 Prednisone1.73 (0.16 to 19.11)0.654
Cochicine
 No1
 Yes1.40 (0.81 to 2.44)0.230
First-line treatment
 Without treatment1
 Allopurinol0.40 (0.17 to 0.97)0.043
 Benzbromarone0.49 (0.19 to 1.26)0.140
 Febuxostat0.81 (0.28 to 2.34)0.694
 Urate-lowering drugs1.00 (0.64 to 1.54)0.992
sUA levels achieved
 Yes11
 No3.27 (2.00 to 5.34)<0.0012.05 (1.21 to 3.45)0.007
Cohort entry (year period)
 1991–200011
 2001–20101.57 (0.90 to 2.74)0.1110.80 (0.44 to 1.48)0.486

 2011–2017
2.10 (1.09 to 4.03)0.0260.73 (0.36 to 1.50)0.398
  • No stratified analysis was performed because the Kaiser strata did not modify the risk associated with sUA.

  • *Per unit (year, mg/dL).

  • BMI, body mass index; CV, cardiovascular; sUA, serum uric acid.