Table 3

Key findings of the papers addressing specific topics regarding the competences that HPRs of multiple professions have in common

CountryHPRs*Key findings
Bergsten et al18
SwedenNu, PT, OTDelivering knowledge and advice about their disease and the various therapeutic options are considered core competences for HPRs managing patients with RA.
Brodin et al
2015 (19)
Nu, PTPhysical activity (PA) is important in RA; 35%–60% of HPRs use national recommendations for enhancing physical activity when advising. There are differences between HPRs practice across countries.
Darlow et al
2012 (20)
MultiplePTHPRs must be aware of the association between their own attitudes and beliefs and those of their patients with low back pain.
Dures et al
2014 (21)
UKNu, PT, OTCaptures the views of HPRs about their role in arthritis patients’ self-management.
Cognitive behavioural and communication skills are thought to be important.
Helland et al
2013 (23)
NorwayNu, PT, OTHPRs although felt that sexual-issues are important in patients with rheumatic diseases they rarely raise this topic. Those with sexual education were more competent to discuss it.
Hurkmans et al
2011 (24)
NetherlandsNu, PTPhysical activity is an important goal for RA.
Majority of HPR gave advice towards this direction but felt more education is needed for them to feel competent
Larkin et al
2017 (26)
IrelandNu, PTHPRs feel that physical activity (PA) is important for RA. More education regarding PA recommendations is needed.
Uncertainty about how to intervene to promote PA.
Lillie et al
2013 (27)
UKNu, PT, OTMajority (71%) of HPRs had the competences to manage people with RA.
HPRs felt less confident to advice for exercise and pain management.
HPRs generally less confident to advise for OA compared with RA.
Listen to patients’ concerns was identified as one of the most important competences.
Lundon et al
2009 (28)
CanadaPT, OTA training programme offered HPR certain competences such as: increased clinical responsibilities, increased efficiencies in practice settings, increased role as educational leader and others
1991 (29)
NANu, PT, OTUnderlines the role of HPR in patient education in terms of identifying the needs of the patients, motivating and communicating effectively, educating patients in a tailored approach
Taal et al
2006 (30)
NANu, PT, OTHPRs play a key role in all domains of International
Classification of Functioning, Disability and
Health (ICF). The latter, helps in the effective communication among HPRs and between HPRs and patients with RA.
Vlieland et al
2016 (31)
MultipleNu, PT, OTThere is a lack of postgraduate rheumatology education on general aspects of management and specific rheumatic diseases in most countries. Awareness educational offerings (eg, EULAR courses) needs to be raised, overrunning possible obstacles (eg, language, lack of resources).
Willems et al
2015 (32)
MultipleNu, PT, OTHPRs play an important role in the non-pharmacological management of patients with systemic sclerosis. They have many treatment targets, using multiple (>100) therapeutic interventions. However, there is variation across Europe. HPRs recognise that they have educational needs.
Woolf et al
2007 (33)
NANu, PT, OTMulti-disciplinary approach is a key strategy for the management of musculoskeletal diseases.
Rheumatology centres are expected to provide education for patients (eg, for self-management) and for other health-providers (eg, primary care doctors).
Zangi et al
2015 (11)
NANu, PT, OTEULAR recommendations provide the framework by which HPRs should provide patient education for patients with inflammatory arthritis.
  • *Only nurses, physiotherapists and occupational therapists are referred in this table.

  • HPR, health professional in rheumatology; NA, not applicable; Nu, nurses; OA, osteoarthritis; OT, occupational therapists; PT, physiotherapists; RA, rheumatoid arthritis.