Table 2

Key findings of the papers underpinning the development of comprehensive sets of competences that HPRs of multiple professions have in common

CountryHPRs*Key findings
Erwin et al22 2018UKNon-specialist community-based nurses and allied health professionalsPerspectives of patients with arthritis (RA or OA) about the competences that HPR should have. Among others these are: holistic approach of arthritis considering also its impact on their lives and their families; knowledge of pharmacological treatments and communicating effectively with other health providers and the patients.
Erwin et al10 2017UKNon-specialist community-based nurses and allied health professionalsHPRs should have an understanding of the difference between inflammatory arthritis (IA) and OA, of how serious OA can be and of the unpredictability of IA; understand the psychosocial impact of arthritis on individuals, family and friends and the psychological adjustment needed on IA diagnosis; have some knowledge of the drug treatments of IA and the implications of taking immunosuppressive drugs; understand the pain associated with arthritis, particularly OA; be able to give basic advice on pacing and pain management, to make multidisciplinary referrals, to communicate effectively between referral points, to signpost people to sources of help and good and to provide reliable sources of education and information (especially for OA); understand that patients who have a diagnosis for a long time are the experts in their own disease; and have good communication skills and taking a holistic approach for people with arthritis.
Health Education England,
NHS England Medical Directorate and Skills for Health3 2018
UKNu, PT and OTDetailed framework describing the competences of HPRs. Four key domains are recognised ((A) person-centred approach, (B) assessment, investigation and diagnosis, (C) condition management, interventions and prevention and (D) service and professional development) further subcategorised to 14 capabilities.
Hurkmans et al25 2013NetherlandsNu, PT, OT, social workers and psychologists.HPRs are expected: to have basic knowledge and understanding of RMDs and their impact on all aspects of life; to perform a comprehensive assessment and make a treatment plan based on that; to execute treatment in a safe and efficient manner; to communicate effectively with patients, HPRs and other colleagues; to work in an ethical manner; to participate in research and being able to apply results from research into daily practice; and to have knowledge on regional and national networks and collaborations related to the management of people with RMDs.
Moe et al4 2018NorwayNu, PT, OT, social workers, psychologists and pharmacistsIdentified competences for HPRs are: to have updated knowledge about rheumatic diseases (prognosis, assessment and treatment procedures, common symptoms and comorbidities); being able to understand the biopsychosocial model and ensure comprehensive treatment; communicating with and coordinating other professional groups and health/social services; to offer education to patients and relatives; and empowering patients to promote the management of long-term illness or to make lifestyle and behavioural changes.
  • HPR, health professional in rheumatology; Nu, nurses; OA, osteoarthritis; OT, occupational therapists; PT, physiotherapists; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RMD, rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases.