Table 5

Multivariate analyses of the relation between baseline characteristics and BMD over the study period*

Femoral neckLumbar spineFemoral neckLumbar spine
Mean difference95% CIMean difference95% CIMean difference95% CIMean difference95% CI
Postmenopausal0.500.88 to −0.11−0.33−0.74 to 0.08NANA
BMI0.240.07 to 0.410.400.23 to 0.570.700.46 to 0.950.480.23 to 0.74
Smoking (ever)−0.09−0.44 to 0.26−0.13−0.49 to 0.230.38−0.25 to 1.020.50−0.16 to 1.17
Positive anti-CCPNI0.390.75 to −0.03NINI
HRTNI0.670.23 to 1.11NANA
  • Bold text indicates significant associations.

  • *Mixed linear effect models; estimated mean differences over time (Z-scores), per SD or positive versus negative. Adjusted for all variables in the table.

  • anti-CCP, anticyclic citrullinated protein; BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index; HRT, hormone replacement therapy; NA, not applicable; NI, not included.