Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients with and without DFR ≥1 year at any time point

sDFRNo sDFR
BeSt studyNN=107N=362P value
Age, mean (SD)†46954.6 (14.2)54.0 (13.5)0.676
Gender female, n (%)§46956 (52.3)257 (71.0)<0.001
Smoking, n (%)§46633 (30.8)133 (37.1)0.239
BMI, mean (SD)†46925.3 (3.18)26.1 (4.23)0.069
Symptom duration (weeks), median (IQR)‡46820.7 (11.7; 40.0)23.3 (14.1; 53.7)0.049
RF-positive, n (%)§46956 (52.3)247 (68.2)0.003
ACPA-positive, n (%)§45945 (42.1)240 (68.2)<0.001
DAS, mean (SD)†4694.25 (0.87)4.47 (0.86)0.019
HAQ, mean (SD)†4691.20 (0.67)1.42 (0.66)0.002
Initial monotherapy, n (%)§46953 (49.5)190 (47.5)0.713
IMPROVED studyN=110N=311
Age, mean (SD)†42152.0 (13.2)51.9 (12.5)0.936
Gender female, n (%)§42170 (63.6)221 (71.1)0.147
Smoking, n (%)§41829 (26.6)99 (32.0)0.290
BMI, mean (SD)†40925.3 (3.69)26.1 (4.59)0.100
Symptom duration (weeks), median (IQR)‡42015.0 (8.0; 27.0)20.0 (9.0; 38.0)0.061
RF-positive, n (%)§40471 (67.0)216 (72.5)0.283
ACPA-positive, n (%)§41858 (53.2)231 (74.8)<0.001
DAS, mean (SD)†4213.21 (0.91)3.38 (0.93)0.117
HAQ, mean (SD)†4161.16 (0.69)1.18 (0.67)0.891
Initial monotherapy*----
  • *In the IMPROVED study, all patients received initial combination therapy.

  • Student’s t-test was applied (parametric data).

  • ‡Mann–Whitney U test was applied (non-parametric data).

  • §Pearson χ2 test was applied (binary data).

  • ACPA, anti-citrullinated protein antibody; BMI, body mass index; DAS, Disease Activity Score; DFR, drug-free remission; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; RF, rheumatoid factor; sDFR, sustained drug-free remission.