Table 1

Demographic and clinical information

VariableAge-matched controls
(n=48)
Patients with SLE
(n=243)
P valuePatients with SLE with active renal disease (n=85)Patients with SLE with inactive/no renal disease (n=133)P value
Female (%)36 (75)222 (91) <0.01 78 (92)120 (90)ns
Age, years (range)38 (31–48)40 (30.5–51)ns35 (25–47.5)43 (34–53.7) <0.01
Male (%)12 (25)21(9)ns7 (8)13(10)ns
Age, years (range)39 (31.8–48.3)40 (28–51)ns40 (29–51)40 (30–51)ns
Ethnicity*
White Caucasian (%)46 (96)149(61) <0.0001 43 (51)93 (70)ns
Asian (%)2 (4)41 (17)-21 (25)17(13)ns
Black (%)-29 (12)-11(13)11(8)ns
Other (%)12 (5)10 (11)12 (9)
Not specified (%)12 (5)
Disease duration, years (range)-10 (6–17)9 (5–15)10 (6–17)ns
SLEDAI-2 K score (range)-8 (4–13)12 (8–16)7 (4–10) <0.001
Global BILAG-BR score (range)-18 (12–24)21 (14.5–28)15 (10–22) <0.001
SLICC damage score (range)-0 (0–1)0 (0–1)0 (0–2)ns
Anti-dsDNA positivity (%)-122 (50)45 (53)54 (40) <0.001
Low C3 and/or C4 (%)-121 (50)49 (57)51 (38) <0.01
Antimalarial drug treatment (%)-230 (95)78 (92)120 (80)ns
Oral corticosteroid dose, mg (range)-10 (9–20)12.5 (10–20)10 (8–20)ns
Treatment with immunosuppressants/immunomodulators† (%)-102 (42)37 (44)50 (38)ns
Treatment with ACE or ARB2 inhibitors (%)-16 (6.6)7 (8)8 (6)ns
  • Significant differences were highlighted using bold letters.

  • *Ethnicity groups include white: white British, white Irish and ‘white other’; Asian: Bangladeshi, Chinese, Indian, Pakistani and ‘other Asian’; and black: black African, Caribbean and ‘other Black’.

  • †Immunosuppressants include azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporin.

  • Anti-dsDNA, anti-double-stranded DNA; ARB2, angiotensin II receptor blockers; BILAG-BR, British Isles Lupus Assessment Group Biologics Register; ns, not significant; SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI-2 K, SLE Disease Activity Index 2000.

  • The SLE patient cohort was separated into patients with or without active renal disease. Data are presented as total and fractions (%) for categorical variables. Median values with IQRs (25–75 IQR) are presented for continuous variables. Continuous variables were analysed using Mann-Whitney U tests; categorical variables were tested using Pearson’s χ2 tests.