Table 2

Associations between immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) and risk of VTE in unadjusted and multivariable analysis

HR (95% CI)
No.Patient years at riskEventsUnadjustedAdjusted
Primary outcome: risk of VTE
All immune mediated inflammatory diseases
 Controls213 5121 756 38138041.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Immune mediated inflammatory disease53 378438 7431532 1.62 (1.52, 1.71) 1.46 (1.36, 1.56)
Ulcerative colitis
 Controls56 728476 5069561.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Ulcerative colitis14 182119 635335 1.40 (1.23, 1.58) 1.27 (1.10, 1.45)
Crohn’s disease
 Controls37 956307 3734601.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Crohn’s disease948976 685220 1.92 (1.63, 2.25) 1.74 (1.45, 2.08)
Rheumatoid arthritis
 Controls93 640770 42420201.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Rheumatoid arthritis23 41019 022845 1.69 (1.56, 1.83) 1.54 (1.40, 1.69)
Psoriatic arthritis
 Controls25 188202 0783681.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 All Immune mediated inflammatory diseases629751 400132 1.41 (1.16, 1.72) 1.20 (0.96, 1.52)
Secondary outcome: risk of PE
All Immune mediated inflammatory diseases
 Controls213 5091 777 83717371.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Immune mediated inflammatory disease53 370443 470672 1.57 (1.44, 1.72) 1.43 (1.29, 1.58)
Ulcerative colitis
 Controls56 728482 1864521.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Ulcerative colitis14 182120 710149 1.35 (1.12, 1.62) 1.23 (1.01, 1.49)
Crohn’s disease
 Controls37 956310 4702071.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Crohn’s disease948977 39398 1.96 (1.55, 2.49) 1.69 (1.29, 2.20)
Rheumatoid arthritis
 Controls93 639780 8839161.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Rheumatoid arthritis23 408193 534373 1.66 (1.47, 1.87) 1.57 (1.36, 1.80)
Psoriatic arthritis
 Controls25 186204 2991611.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Psoriatic arthritis629751 83352 1.27 (0.93, 1.73) 1.08 (0.75, 1.55)
Secondary outcome: risk of DVT
All Immune mediated inflammatory diseases
 Controls213 5101 773 18623351.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Immune mediated inflammatory disease53 372441 330978 1.70 (1.58, 1.83) 1.57 (1.45, 1.71)
Ulcerative colitis
 Controls56 728480 9445831.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Ulcerative colitis14 182120 309207 1.43 (1.22, 1.68) 1.33 (1.13, 1.57)
Crohn’s disease
 Controls37 956309 7692791.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Crohn’s disease948977 115140 2.05 (1.67, 2.50) 1.96 (1.57, 2.45)
Rheumatoid arthritisRA
 Controls93 640778 52312421.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Rheumatoid arthritis23 408192 276542 1.78 (1.61, 1.97) 1.64 (1.45, 1.84)
Psoriatic arthritis
 Controls25 817203 9492311.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Psoriatic arthritis629751 63089 1.52 (1.21, 1.97) 1.34 (1.01, 1.77)
  • Adjusted for age, sex, IMD quintile, ethnicity, BMI category, smoking status, alcohol use category, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, type 2 diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, CKD stage 3–5, COPD, chronic liver disease, malignancy, reduced mobility, use of NSAIDs, antiplatelets, warfarin, DOACs, hormone replacement therapy, oestrogen contraceptives, immunotherapy, corticosteroids, statins and baseline platelet category.

  • BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; DOAC, direct oral anticoagulants; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PE, pulmonary embolism; RA, rheumatoid arthritis