Table 1

Papers on therapeutic strategies for non-inflammatory complaints, including effect sizes

Type of interventionOutcomeBenefit of intervention compared with control* in n of n selected papers
(if applicable: of which n of n SLRs)
Effect size for papers with benefit of intervention†
(if available)
RoB (n)
LMH
Exercise129 136 137 140 147 153 154 157–159 165 166 171Function7/8(4/4)0.39; 0.46; 0.73; 0.88224
Pain4/10(2/7)0.99‡; 1.02334
QoL2/3(0/1)0.90012
Fatigue2/4(1/2)0.37022
Other:
- Aerobic capacity and muscle strength1/2(1/1)0.47–0.99‡101
- Range of motion1/2(1/1)011
- Grip function0/1(0/1)100
- Global impact of disease1/1(1/1)010
- Mood0/1(0/1)010
Diet127 129FunctionNo papers
Pain2/2(2/2)200
QoLNo papers
FatigueNo papers
Psychological interventions133 134 138 146 162 165Function1/2(1/1)011
Pain3/5(3/3)0.177‡122
QoLNo papers
Fatigue4/4(2/2)0.16112
Other:
- Overall efficacy1/1(1/1)010
- Negative mood and anxiety1/10.31–0.46001
Education128 129 159Function1/1(1/1)100
Pain0/1001
QoLNo papers
Fatigue0/1001
Other: Mood1/1(1/1)010
Self-management programmes§122 125 126 132 135 137 144 148 152 160 167Function2/7(2/3)124
Pain3/9(3/4)225
QoL0/2(0/1)101
Fatigue4/4(3/3)0.37121
Alternative medicine143 150 155 158FunctionNo papers
Pain2/3(0/1)1.44–2.00111
QoLNo papers
Fatigue1/10.98–1.67001
Other:
- Range of motion1/10.49–14.37001
- Morning stiffness1/1(1/1)100
- Patient global assessment1/1(1/1)010
Cryotherapy142 149Function0/2002
Pain0/2002
QoLNo papers
Fatigue0/1001
Balneotherapy123 124 164 165Function1/3(0/1)012
Pain1/3(0/1)0.88012
QoL0/1001
Fatigue0/1001
Other: Global impact of disease0/1(0/1)010
Intensification of patient care130 131 145 161 168 169Function2/40.29004
Pain1/2002
QoL0/3003
Fatigue1/2(0/1)101
Pharmacological (non-DMARD)139 141 151 156 163 170Function0/1(0/1)100
Pain2/6(1/4)0.15ketoprofen patch330
QoL0/2(0/2)110
FatigueNo papers
Other: Patient global assessment1/1(1/1)100
  • *Mostly usual care or wait list.

  • †Cohen’s d, if different outcome measures were used, the range in effect sizes over these measures is reported.

  • ‡Pooled effect size, reported in SLR.

  • §Combination of non-pharmacological interventions.

  • H, high (red); L, low (green); M, moderate (yellow); n, number of papers; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RoB, risk of bias; SLR, systematic literature review.