Table 2

Papers on the optimisation of self-management, including effect sizes

OutcomeType of interventionBenefit of intervention compared with control* in n of n selected papers
(if applicable: of which n of n SLRs)
Effect size for papers with benefit of intervention†
(if available)
RoB (n)
LMH
Self-efficacy122 125 126 130–132 137 144 145 148 152 159 160 162 167 183 185–196Self-management programmes‡12/13(4/4)0.18–0.39; 0.23–0.67; 0.37;
0.43–0.53; 0.49§; 7.52–8.25
229
Education6/6(1/1)0.05–0.17; 0.22–0.59; 1.23015
Psychological2/2(1/1)0.20–0.35; 0.45101
Other:
- Exercise1/10.44–1.06001
- Nurse-led follow-up1/1(1/1)100
- Eszopiclone 3 mg1/10.05–0.37010
- Assistive technology (eye drop dispenser)1/1(1/1)100
- Patient-reported outcome-based telehealth follow-up0/1001
- Direct access to hospital review through helpline0/1001
Anxiety137 145 162 183 184 187 191–193Self-management programs‡1/10.69–0.71001
Education1/30.039003
Psychological1/2(1/1)0.17§101
Other:
- Relaxation therapy0/1001
- Direct access to hospital review through helpline0/1001
Depressive symptoms132 137 145 152 162 183 184 187 191–193Self-management programmes‡0/2002
Education0/3003
Psychological3/3(2/2)0.15–0.33§; 0.65201
Other:
- Relaxation therapy0/1001
- Direct access to hospital review through helpline0/1001
RA knowledge122 167 183 185 189 193Self-management programmes‡1/10.34-0.47001
Education2/3(1/1)0.84012
PsychologicalNo papers
Other: Web-based rehabilitation1/1(1/1)100
  • *Mostly usual care or wait list.

  • †If different outcome measures were used, the range in effect sizes over these measures is reported.

  • ‡Combination of non-pharmacological interventions.

  • §Pooled effect size, reported in SLR.

  • H, high (red); L, low (green); M, moderate (yellow); n, number of papers; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RoB, risk of bias; SLR, systematic literature review.