Table 6

Humoral immune response to SAR-CoV-2 infection according to disease phenotype

AuthorPopulationMethodIgGIgMIgANeutralisation assayRoB
Wang et al5023 COVID-19
48 HD
ELISA*↑ at D10–15 after onset
Remained ↑ for at least for 6W
HD: no Abs detected
SEVERE: ↑ within W1-2 and ↓ after W4
MILD: Most patients negative up to W4
HD: no Abs detected
  • 73.9% of patients generated NAb

  • Higher NAb titres in severe vs mild

Xiang et al5385 COVID-19
60 HD
ELISA†↑ at D11-12 after onset
Remained ↑ for ≥30
HD: 5% positivity
↑ at D9 after onset,
Remained ↑ for ≥30D
HD: No Abs
Zhao et al51173
ELISA‡↑ at D14 (median)↑ at D12 (median)NDNDUnclear
Xie et al5256 COVID-19CLIA§↑ in W1
Remained ↑ for at least 41D, even after the resolution of infection
↑ in W1 and ↓ at W4-5NDNDUnclear
Zhou et al5452 COVID-19CLIA*↑ in W1
100% patients positive at D28
Remained ↑ up to D54
↑ in W1 and peak at W4 (77% of patients)NDNDUnclear
  • *Antigen not specified.

  • †Recombinant nucleocapsid protein.

  • ‡IgM: receptor binding domain of the spike protein; IgG: a recombinant nucleoprotein.

  • §Envelope (E) protein and nucleocapsid (N) protein.

  • D, day; HD, healthy donor; M, month; NAb, neutralising antibodies; ND, not detailed; RoB, risk of bias; W, week.