Table 5

Interferon response to SARS-CoV-2 infection

AuthorStudy typePatients NControl NPopulationsCellsRoB
Hadjadj et al48CyTOF
Simoa immunoassay
50 (15 mild to moderate, 17 severe and 18 critical patientsHD 18COVID-19 (mild, moderate and/or severe) vs HD↓↓↓ IFN-β mRNA and proteinLow
Severe COVID-19 vs HD↑genes involved in type I IFN signalling (such as IFNAR1, JAK1 and TYK2)
↓ IFN-stimulated genes (such as MX1, IFITM1 and IFIT2)
Severe COVID-19 vs mild/moderate↓↓ plasma levels of IFN-α2 protein and IFN activity significantly
Lower type I IFN response in severe vs critical patients
Zhu et al46Multiparametric flow cytometry
Patients’ DC cultures
Acute COVID-19 (6 severe and 11 mild)
Convalescent COVID-19 (2 severe and 22 mild)
HDCOVID-19 (mild, moderate and/or severe) vs HD
After stimulation:
IFN-α was not induced in 3/3 active patients and 3/4 convalescent patients
IFN-β was not increased in 3/3 active patients, rather only slightly elevated in 3/4 convalescent patients indicating a reduced capacity of making antiviral interferon
  • HD, healthy donor; IFN, interferon; JAK, Janus kinase; MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein; TYK, tyrosine kinase.