Table 8

Multiparametric algorithms for prediction of disease outcome and progression

AuthorDesignStatistical modelPopulationScore componentsDiagnostic performancesRoB
Prediction of hospitalisation
Jehi et al66RetrospectiveLASSO logistic regressionTraining: 2852
Validation: 1684
Age, race, ethnicity, gender, smoking, BMI, socioeconomic status, fever, fatigue, shortness of breath, diarrhoea, vomiting, asthma, diabetes, hypertension, immunosuppressive disease, NSAIDs, immunosuppressive treatment, platelets, AST, chloride, potassium, blood urea nitrogenPrediction of Hospitalisation
Training: AUC=0.9, Scaled Brier Score 42.6% (95% CI 37.8%, 47.4%)
Validation: AUC=0.813
Scaled Brier Score 25.6% (19.9%, 31.3%)
Prediction of survival
Wu et al68RetrospectiveUnivariate and multivariate Cox regression analysesTraining: 210
Validation: 60
Neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, procalcitonin, age and C reactive proteinSurvival
Training: AUC=0.955
Validation: AUC=0.945
Dong et al67RetrospectiveLASSO logistic regression and multivariate Cox regressionTraining: 369
Validation: 259
Hypertension, higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and increased NT-proBNPSurvival
Training: AUC=0.92
Validation: AUC=0.92
Zhang et al69RetrospectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 516
Validation: 186
Age, lactate dehydrogenase level, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and direct bilirubin level14 and 28 days Survival
Training: C-index=0.886
Validation: C-index=0.879
Prediction of mortality
Wang et al70RetrospectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 199
Validation: 44
FAD-85 score age+0.01 * ferritin+D-dimer28-day mortality
Training: AUC=0.871
Validation: AUC=NA
Sensitivity 86.4%
Specificity 81.8%
Weng et al71RetrospectiveLASSO logistic regressionTraining: 176
Validation: 125
Age, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and C reactive protein28-day mortality
Training: AUC=0.921
Validation: AUC=0.975
Sensitivity 86.4%
Prediction of disease progression
Gerotziafas et al75ProspectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 310
Validation: 120
Obesity, gender, haemoglobin, lymphocyte, and the cDIC-ISTH (International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis score for compensated disseminated intravascular coagulation score) including platelet count, prothrombin time, D-dimers, antithombin and protein C levels
Disease progression
Training: AUC=0.77
Validation: AUC=NA
Sensitivity 81%
Specificity 60%
Bartoletti et al76RetrospectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 644
Validation: 469
PREDI-CO score:
Age, obesity, body temperature, respiratory rate, lymphocyte count, creatinine≥1 mg/dL, C reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase
Disease progression
Training: AUC=0.89
Validation: AUC=0.85
Sensitivity 71.6%
Specificity 89.1%
Ji et al74RetrospectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 86
Validation: 62
Comorbidity, dyspnoea on admission, lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocyte countDisease progression
Training: AUC=0.856
Validation: AUC=0.819
Sensitivity 94%
Specificity 63.1%
Li et al73RetrospectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 322
Validation: 317
(Age×LDH)/CD4 T-cell countDisease progression
Training: AUC=0.92
Validation: AUC=0.92
Sensitivity 81%
Specificity 93%
Xu et al72RetrospectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 315
Validation N°1: 69
Validation N°2: 123
Age, comorbid diseases, neutrophil‐to‐lymphocyte ratio, d‐dimer, C-reactive protein, and platelet countDisease progression to critical illness
Training: AUC=0.923
Validation N°1: AUC=0.882
Validation N°2: AUC=0.906
Xiao et al77RetrospectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 231
Validation No 1: 101
Validation No 2: 110
HNC-LL (hypertension, neutrophil count, C reactive protein, lymphocyte count, lactate dehydrogenaseDisease severity
Training: AUC=0.861, p<0.001
Validation: AUC=0.871, p<0.001
V Validation No 2: AUC=0.826, p<0.001
Zhang et al78RetrospectiveMultivariate logistic regressionTraining: 80
Validation: 22
Age, white cell count, neutrophil, glomerular filtration rate and myoglobinDisease severity
Training: AUC=0.906
Validation: AUC=0.958
Sensitivity 70.8%
Specificity 89.3%
Laing et al79RetrospectiveLASSO and multivariate logistic regressionTraining: 1590
Validation: 710
Chest radiographic abnormality, age, hemoptysis, dyspnoea, unconsciousness, number of comorbidities, cancer history, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, lactate dehydrogenase and direct bilirubinDisease progression to critical illness
Training: AUC=0.9
Validation: AUC=0.813
  • AUC, area under the curve; RoB, risk of bias.