Table 1

Overview of technological platforms in candidate vaccines against SARS-CoV-2

PlatformAdvantageVaccine typeVaccine nameDevelopersStage
InactivatedWell established manufacturing processPurified whole SARS-CoV-2 componentsCoronaVacSinovac Life Sciences, Beijing, ChinaPhase III
New Crown COVID-19Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/SinopharmPhase III
BIBIBP-CorVBeijing Institute of Biological Products/SinopharmPhase III
Nucleic acidRapid and low cost manufacturingLipid-encapsulated mRNAmRNA1273Moderna/NIAIDPhase III
bNT162b2BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/PfizerPhase III
Self-amplifying mRNALNP-nCoVsaRNAImperial College LondonPhase I
Plasmid DNA with medical deviceINO-4800Inovio Pharmaceuticals/
International Vaccine Institute
Phase I/II
Viral vectorRobust cellular and humoral vaccine immunityChimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd)ChAdOx1 nCoV-19AstraZeneca/University of OxfordPhase III
Human adenovirus type 5Ad5-nCoVCanSino Biological Inc./Beijing Institute of BiotechnologyPhase III
Human adenovirus type 26Ad26.COV2-SJanssen Pharmaceutical companiesPhase III
Vesicular stomatitis virusIIBR-100Israel Institute for Biological ResearchPhase I/II
  • Adopted from Ura et al.51

  • mRNA, messenger RNA.