Table 2

Characteristics of patients with Modic change (MC1) and MC2

P value
Demographic characteristics of patients
 Sex, female32 (69.6%)19 (51.4%)0.09
 Age, years42.1±8.345.8±9.00.06
 Smoking, yes*17 (39.5%)7 (20%)0.06
Characteristics of LBP
 Duration of LBP, years*4.2±4.27.1±8.60.05
Psychological factors
 Hopkins symptom checklist*1.6±0.51.6±0.50.70
Use of analgesics
 Paracetamol§3 (7%)6 (17.1%)0.16
 Paracetamol+codeine¶2 (4.7%)3 (8.6%)0.48
 Opioids**2 (4.7%)5 (14.3%)0.14
 NSAIDs*12 (27.9%)10 (28.6%)0.95
 Diabetes††1 (2.3%)00.36
 Arthritis‡‡4 (9.3%)00.06
 Asthma§§3 (7.0%)00.11
 Myocardial infarction¶¶02 (5.7%)0.11
 Reflux, peptic ulcer, gastritis oesophagitis***3 (7.0%)2 (5.7%)0.82
 Depression3 (7.0%)2 (5.7%)0.82
Largest MC size
 MC height ≥25% of vertebral body height44 (95.7%)30 (81.1%)0.03
 MC volume ≥25% of vertebral body volume25 (54.3%)12 (32.4%)0.05
  • Continuous variables are given as mean±SD and categorical variables are given with absolute and relative frequencies. Continuous variables were compared with Student’s t-test and χ2 test was used for categorical variables. Significant values are shown in bold.

  • *MC1 n=43, MC2 n=35.

  • †MC1 n=43, MC2 n=34.

  • ‡MC1 n=41, MC2 n=35.

  • §MC1 n=40, MC2 n=29.

  • ¶MC1 n=41, MC2 n=32.

  • **MC1 n=41, MC2 n=30.

  • ††MC1 n=42, MC2 n=35.

  • ‡‡MC1 n=39, MC2 n=35.

  • §§MC1 n=40, MC2 n=35.

  • ¶¶MC1 n=43, MC2 n=33.

  • ***MC1 n=40, MC2 n=33.

  • BMI, body mass index; CRP, C reactive protein; EQ-5D, EuroQol-5D; FABQ, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQpa questions related to physical activity, FABQw questions related to work); LBP, low back pain; MC1, type 1 Modic changes; MC2, type 2 Modic changes; NRS, Numerical Rating Scale; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ODI, Oswestry Disability Index; RMDQ, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire.