Table 5

Other risk factors which have been reported in individuals at risk of developing RA

StudyPopulationCohort sizeRisk factorFrequencyOutcome
Deane et al59ACPA+ subjects without arthritis (some FDRs, some clinic patients and some health fares)86Those with incident RA had higher BMI (p=0.03)BLDevelopment of IA
Higher BMI in progressors versus non-progressors (32 vs 27), p=0.03
Gan et al52Anti-CCP3+ individuals without IA (from health fairs)35Increased docosapentaenoic acid (n-3 FA)BL and 6M assessments until IA developmentDevelopment of IA
HR=0.52 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.98)
MSK symptoms without arthritis
van Beers-Tas et al50Seropositive arthralgia (ACPA and/or RF)14414-3-3etaBLDevelopment of IA
RR=2.5 (95% CI 1.2 to 5.6), p=0.02
van De Stadt et al51Seropositive arthralgia (ACPA and/or RF)348Lower ApoA1 levelBLDevelopment of IA
HR 0.52 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.92)
Rakieh et al15Anti-CCP+ individuals with non-specific MSK symptoms100HLA DR shared epitopeBLDevelopment of IA
HR=1.84 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.32)
Hunt et al53Anti-CCP+ individuals with non-specific MSK symptoms103Combined clinical and T-cell subset parametersBL and repeated at 1 yearDevelopment of IA
AUC 0.79. PPV 60% and NPV 95%
Early clinical arthritis
Jacobsen et al64Early (<2 years) polyarthritis68Homozygous for MBL variant allelesBLDevelopment of RA
OR 4.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 19), p=0.02
Yeo et al55UA—early synovitis ≥1 joints with symptoms ≤3 months48Synovial mRNA and protein expression of CXCL4 and CXCL7BL assessmentDevelopment of RA at 18 months
Progressors versus non-progressors
Increased expression (trend) in progressors
Mangnus et al56CSA108BMD lossBL and one subsequent visitDevelopment of IA
HR 6.1 (95% CI 1.7 to 21.4), p=0.005
de Rooy et al57Early UA125Highly elevated BMD loss (>2.5 mg/cm2/month)BL and 6 monthsDevelopment of RA
OR 6.1 (95% CI 1.24 to 29.24)
  • HR/OR and CIs have been reported where available.

  • +, positive; ;A, abstract only; ACPA, anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies; ApoA1, apolipoprotein A1; AUC, area under the curve; BCR, B cell receptor; BL, baseline; BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index; CCP, cyclic citrullinated peptide; CRP, C-reactive protein; CXCL, C-X-C motif ligand; FA, fatty acid; FDRs, first-degree relatives; FU, follow-up; HLA-SE, human leucocyte antigen-shared epitope; hs-CRP, high-sensitive C reactive protein; M, months; MBL, mannose binding-lectine; MCP‐1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1; MSK, musculoskeletal; NAN, native American nations; NPV, negative predictive value; PPV, positive predictive value; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RF, rheumatoid factor; ROC, receiving operating characteristics; RR, relative risk.