Table 6

Core risk factors for development of arthritis in individuals at risk of RA according to population

At-risk populationSubpopulationsCore risk factors for arthritis
Asymptomatic at-risk individualsRelatives of RA probands Serum ACPA level±RF
Indigenous at-risk populations
ACPA+ individuals identified by population screening
MSK symptoms without arthritisACPA+ with MSK symptomsSerum ACPA level±RF
MSK symptoms
Subclinical joint inflammation on US
Subclinical joint and tendon inflammation on MRI
ACPA+/RF+ with arthralgiaSerum ACPA level±RF
MSK symptoms
Subclinical joint inflammation on US
Clinically suspect arthralgiaSerum ACPA level±RF
MSK symptoms
Subclinical joint and tendon inflammation on MRI
Early clinical arthritisPalindromic rheumatismSerum ACPA level±RF
MSK symptoms
Undifferentiated arthritisSerum ACPA level±RF
MSK symptoms
Subclinical joint inflammation on US
Subclinical joint and tendon inflammation on MRI
  • ACPA, anticitrullinated protein antibodies; MSK, musculoskeletal; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RF, rheumatoid factor; US, ultrasound.