Table 2

Results of the multivariable ordinal logistic regression using the proportional odds model

Ordinal regression (proportional odds model)OR95% CI
 Age ≤65 years1.0Reference
 65 years<age≤752.62.0 to 3.6
 Age >753.63.0 to 5.0
 Male sex (vs female)1.71.3 to 2.1
 Hypertension alone or CVD alone1.51.2 to 2.0
 Hypertension and CVD2.41.7 to 3.6
 Chronic lung disease2.01.5 to 2.6
 Chronic kidney disease1.81.2 to 2.5
 Diabetes mellitus1.30.9 to 1.8
Rheumatic disease
 Rheumatoid arthritis1.0Reference
 Systemic lupus erythematosus0.50.2 to 1.1
 Vasculitides1.10.7 to 1.5
 Other connective tissue diseases0.90.6 to 1.5
 Psoriatic arthritis0.50.3 to 0.7
 Spondyloarthritides0.80.5 to 1.3
 Other rheumatic diseases (not IJDs/CTDs/vasculitis)1.00.6 to 1.8
 Methotrexate (monotherapy)1.0Reference
 No DMARD therapy0.90.7 to 1.4
 Leflunomide0.80.5 to 1.4
 Antimalarials0.70.4 to 1.3
 Sulfasalazine1.10.6 to 2.1
 Immunosuppressants2.21.3 to 3.9
 TNF inhibitors0.60.4 to 0.9
 Abatacept1.30.5 to 3.0
 Rituximab5.43.3 to 8.8
 IL-6 inhibitors0.70.3 to 1.5
 IL-17/IL-23/IL-12+23 inhibitors0.90.4 to 1.9
 JAK inhibitors1.81.1 to 2.7
Disease activity and glucocorticoids
 Remission/low DA, no GCs1.0(Reference)
 Remission/low DA, GCs 1–10 mg/day1.61.2 to 2.0
 Remission/low DA, GCs>10 mg/day4.61.9 to 11.4
 Moderate/high DA, no GCs2.01.3 to 3.1
 Moderate/high DA, GCs 1–10 mg/day2.41.5 to 3.7
 Moderate/high DA, GCs >10 mg/day5.32.5 to 10.9
  • Ordinal outcome of COVID-19 severity was defined as (1) not-hospitalised, (2) hospitalised but not invasively ventilated and (3) invasively ventilated/deceased.

  • Missing values imputed via multiple imputation. Effects significant at level α=0.05 are marked in bold. N=2222. Compared with table 1, the following numbers of patients were excluded: 27 patients receiving IL-1 inhibitors, 11 patients receiving belimumab, 8 patients receiving apremilast, 6 patients with non-systemic JIA, 1 patient receiving multiple bDMARDs/tsDMARDs.

  • *Patients receiving multiple csDMARDs or immunosuppressants (except glucocorticoids) were grouped according to the following hierarchy: immunosuppressants>sulfasalazine>antimalarials>leflunomide>methotrexate. Patients receiving a bDMARD/tsDMARD alone or in combination were considered solely in the bDMARD/tsDMARD group.

  • bDMARD, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; csDMARD, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; CTD, connective tissue disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DA, disease activity; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; GC, glucocorticoid; IJD, inflammatory joint disease; IL, interleukin; JAK, Janus kinase; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; tsDMARD, targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug.