Table 1

Baseline characteristics of included studies

StudyDesignStudy period and study siteStudy populationTotal participants randomised
Age in years Mean+SD or median IQR*Gender male (%)Coexisting conditions (%)Severity status (%)Colchicine drug doseComparatorOutcome evaluatedFollow-up
Deftereos et al19RCT open label3 April 2020–27 April 2020 (Greece)Hospitalised COVID-19 patients55/50Col: 63 (55-70)*
SC: 65 (54-80)*
Col: 56.4
SC: 60
Col: DM-16.4%, HT-40%, dyslipidaemia- 30.9%, CAD-16.4%, COPD-5.5%
SC: DM-24%, HT-50%, dyslipidaemia-32%, CAD-10%, COPD- 4%
WHO R&D Blueprint Ordinal Clinical Scale : 4 median (3–4) in both groups0.5 mg two times a day for 3 weeksSCMortality, ventilatory support, ICU admission, length of hospital stay, AEs, SAEs, diarrhoea21 days
Horby et al20RCT open labelNovember 2020–March 2021 (UK, Nepal, Indonesia)Hospitalised COVID-19 patients5610/5730Col: 63.3±13.8
SC: 63.5±13.7
Col: 69
SC: 70
Col: DM-25%, CHD-21%, Chronic Lung disease-22%
SC: DM-26%, CHD-21%, Chronic lung disease-21%
Respiratory support Col: none/oxygen- 68%, non-invasive ventilation-27%, Invasive ventilation-5%
None/oxygen – 69%, non-invasive ventilation-26%, invasive ventilation-5%
1 mg stat followed by 0.5 mg two times a day for 10 daysSCMortality, ventilatory support, length of hospital stay28 days
Lopes et al21RCT Double blinded placebo controlledApril 2020–August 2020 (Brazil)Hospitalised COVID-19 patients36/36Col: 54.5 (42.5–64.5)*
SC: 55 (42–67)*
Col: 53
SC: 39
Col: DM-36%, dyslipidaemia-28%, CVD-47%, RD-11%
SC: DM-42%, dyslipidaemia-33%, CVD-44%, RD-14%
SOFA score Col: 2.5 (1–3)
SC: 2.0 (1–3)
0.5 mg three times a day for 5 days then 0.5 mg two times a day for 5 daysSC/placeboMortality, ventilatory support, ICU admission, length of hospital stay, AEs, SAEs, diarrhoea10 days
Salehzadeh et al22RCT open labelMay 2020–June 2020 (Iran)Hospitalised COVID-19 patients50/50Col: 56.56
SC: 55.56
Col: 38
SC: 44
Col: DM-10%, HT-6%, IHD-12%, Cancer-2%
SC: DM-12%, HT-16%, IHD-18%, Cancer-2%
Time from symptoms to enrolment
Col: 6.28 days
SC: 8.12 days
1 mg for 6 daysSC-HCQMortality15 days
Tardif et al23RCT double blindMarch 2020–December 2020 (6 countries)19OPD-based COVID-19 patients2235/2253Col: 54.4±9.7
SC: 54.9±9.9
Col: 44.6
SC: 47.5
Col: DM-19.9%, HT-34.9%, RD-26.1%
SC: DM-20%, HT-37.6%, RD-26.9%
Mild, non-hospitalised patients in both groups0.5 mg two times a day for 3 days then once a day for 27 daysSC-placeboMortality, ventilatory support, AEs, SAEs, diarrhoea30 days
Mareev et al24RCT open labelMay 2020 (Russia)Hospitalised COVID-19 patients21/22Col: 61.9±10.6
SC: 59.9±18.8
Col: 66.7
SC: 72.7
Col: DM-14.3%, HT-66.7%, CAD-14.3%
SC: DM-9.09%, HT-59.1%, CAD-18.2%
NEWS2 score Col:4.95 (2.66) SC: 4.85 (2.68) SHOCS score Col: 7.21 (2.15) SC: 7.71 (2.61)1 mg/day for 3 days then 0.5 mg/dayPlaceboMortality, length of hospital stay12 days
  • *Inter-Quartile Range (IQR)

  • AE, adverse event; CAD, coronary artery disease; Col, colchicine drug arm; COPD, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; CRP, C reactive protein; CVD, cardio vascular disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HCQ, Hydroxycholoroquine; HT, hypertension; ICU, intensive care unit; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; NEWS2, National Early Warning Score 2; OPD, out patient department; RD, respiratory disease; R&D, Research and Development; SAE, serious adverse event; SC, supportive care; SHOCS, Symptomatic Hospital and Outpatient Clinical Score for COVID-19; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.