Table 2

Quality assessment for efficacy and safety parameters as per grade approach

No of studies (design)LimitationInconsistencyIndirectnessImprecisionPublication biasQualityRR*/RD†/ MD‡ (95% CI)
Mortality
 Six (RCT)No serious limitationsNo serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessNo serious imprecisionAsymmetric Funnel plotModerate−0.00 (−0.01 to 0.01)†
Ventilatory support
 Five (RCT)No serious limitationsNo serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessNo serious imprecisionAsymmetric Funnel plotModerate0.67 (0.38 to 1.21)*
 ICU admission
 Three (RCT)No serious limitationsNo serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessNo serious imprecisionAsymmetric Funnel plotModerate0.49 (0.19 to 1.25)*
Length of hospital stay
 Four (RCT)No serious limitationsSerious inconsistency
(I2=77%)
No serious indirectnessSerious imprecision (Wide CI)Asymmetric Funnel plotLow−1.17 (−3.02 to 0.67) ‡
Adverse event
 Three (RCT)No serious limitationsSerious inconsistency (I2=81%)No serious indirectnessNo serious imprecisionAsymmetric Funnel plotModerate1.58 (1.07 to 2.33)*
Serious adverse event
 Three (RCT)No serious limitationsNo serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessNo serious imprecisionAsymmetric Funnel plotModerate−0.01 (−0.02 to 0.00)†
Gastrointestinal adverse event
 Three (RCT)No serious limitationsNo serious inconsistencyNo serious indirectnessNo serious imprecisionAsymmetric Funnel plotModerate1.93 (1.62 to 2.29)*
  • * Risk ratio

  • † Risk Difference

  • ‡ Mean difference

  • .ICU, intensive care unit; MD, mean difference; ; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RD, risk difference; RR, risk ratio.