Table 5

Studies on imaging settings and technical standards (PICO2)

Year authorStudy designSettingAlternative settingDiseaseNo Setting/
Alternative setting
Intervention (COMPOUND)SITEFAVORS setting*FAVORS alternative setting*No difference between settings*RoB†
Large joints and periarticular structures
RCTOne NeedleTwo NeedlesRotator cuff calcific tendinopathy100/111US aspiration/ injection
(heated saline, mepivacaine, triamcinolone)
subacromial/ subdeltoid bursa2 x Efficacy (BSL)1 x Accuracy (BSL)
3 x Safety (BSL,1,3m,1y)
1 x Cost/Time (BSL)
Embedded Image
RCT25 mL mechanical syringe60 mL automatic syringeknee effusion in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis20/22US joint aspiration/ injection
(lidocaine, triamcinolone)
knee joint1 x Accuracy (BSL)
1 x Safety (BSL,2w)
Embedded Image
Multiple joints
Retrospective cohort studyUS-NBUS-P&F/
Inflammatory arthritis, degenerative diseaseUS-NB: 402/
US-P&F: 65
Arthroscopy: 57
Synovial biopsywrist, knee, MCP, ankle, elbow, MTP1 x Efficacy (n.a.)2 x Safety (BSL,7-14d)
2 x Efficacy (BSL,7-14d)
Embedded Image
  • *These columns indicate the number of outcomes studied and their categories (eg, 6 × efficacy indicates that six different outcomes related to the efficacy category were studied), with the respective time point(s) when the outcome was determined (parenthesis). The term ‘BSL’ refers to differences concerning the outcomes at BSL. A detailed description of studies and outcomes can be found in supplement.

  • †A green, yellow, red and black circle indicate low, moderate, high and critical risk of bias, respectively. In case multiple circles are depicted, certain outcomes within one study had different risk of bias.

  • BSL, baseline; MCP, metacarpophalangeal joints; MTP, metatarsophalangeal joints; n.a., not applicable; NB, needle biopsy; P&F, portal and forceps; PICO, Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RoB, Risk of Bias; US, ultrasound.;