Table 6

Procedural protocols for imaging-guided interventions (PICO3)

Year authorStudy designProcedureAlternative procedureDiseaseNo procedure/ ALTERNATIVE PROCEDUREIntervention (COMPOUND)SITEFAVORS procedure*FAVORS alternative procedure*No difference between procedures*RoB†
Large joints and periarticular structures
2018 Khallaf67RCTGH approachSASD approachadhesive capsulitis20/20US injection (methylprednisolone, lidocaine)shoulder1 x Safety (12 w)2 x Efficacy (12 w)1 x Safety (BSL,12w)
3 x Efficacy (BSL,12w)
Embedded Image
2016 Cho68RCTIntra-articularSubacromial Bursa or intra-articular and bursaFrozen shoulder36/37US injection
(triamcinolone, lidocaine)
GH/ Subacromial bursa/both1 x Safety (BSL,3,6,12w)
2 x Efficacy (BSL,3,6,12w)
1 x Safety (BSL,3,6,12w)3 x Efficacy (BSL,3,6,12w)Embedded Image
2014 Chang22RCTsubscapular musclescapulothoracic bursapatients with scapular pain18/18Subscapular muscle: US injection
Scapulothoracic bursa: palpation guidance injection
(lidocaine, triamcinolone)
subscapularis muscle/ scapulothoracic bursa2 x Safety (BSL,1,2,3,12w)
1 x Efficacy (1,12 w)
Embedded Image
2015 Chang69Retrospective cross sectional studyBone (Endplate) BiopsyDisk Biopsy/
Paravertebral soft tissue Biopsy
Diskitis osteomyelitis102CT BiopsySpine2 x Accuracy (BSL)Embedded Image
2015 Althoff65Prospective cohort studyintra-articularperi-articularSacroiliitis23/7CT injection
SIJ1 x Safety (3,6 m)Embedded Image
2009 Hartung66Prospective cohort studyIntra-articularPeriarticularAcute sacroilitis8/12 injectionsUS Injection
(triamcinolone, gadolinium)
SIJ1 x Safety (BSL,24h,4w)Embedded Image
2013 Jang71RCTOut of plain USIn plain USknee OA41/44Injection
(lidocaine, triamcinolone, contrast agent)
knee joint1 x Accuracy (BSL)
1 x Safety (BSL)
1 x Cost/Time (BSL)
Embedded Image
2011 Park72RCTMedial PortalMidlateral Portal/
Superolateral Portal
Knee OA40/43/43 kneesUS injection
(lidocaine, triamcinolone, contrast agent)
knee joint1 x Accuracy (BSL)
1 x Safety (4 w) no difference between any group
Embedded Image
2013 Park70RCTMidmedial PortalMidlateral Portal/
Superolateral Portal
Knee OA40/40/40 kneesUS injection
(contrast medium, lidocaine, triamcinolone)
knee joint1 x Accuracy (BSL)
1 x Safety (n.a.) no difference between any group
Embedded Image
Small Joints and Periarticular Structures
2013 Sabeti-Aschraf77RCTIntra-articular injectionPeriarticular injectionAC joint arthralgia53/53 shouldersUS Injection (lidocaine, betamethasone)AC joints1 x Safety (BSL,1h,1,3w)4 x Safety (BSL,1h,1,3w)Embedded Image
2016 Shinomiya76RCTIntra sheathExtra sheathTrigger finger27 (29 fingers)/28 (32 fingers)Injection
(triamcinolone, mepivacaine)
A1 pulley middle/ ring fingers2 x Safety (BSL,4w)
5 x Efficacy (BSL,4w)
2018 Mardani-Kivi75RCTIntra sheathExtra sheathtrigger finger83/83US injections
(methylprednisolone, lidocaine)
A1 pulley flexor tendons1 x Safety (BSL,3,6,12,24,48w)
1 x Efficacy (BSL,3,6,12,24,48w)
Embedded Image
2018 Babaei-Ghazani74RCTAbove Median nerveBelow Median nerveCTS22/22US injection
carpal tunnel3 x Safety (BSL,6w,12w)
6 x Efficacy (BSL,6w,12w)
Embedded Image
2018 Hsu73Retrospective cohort studyIntraepineuriumExtraepineuriumCTS39/62 wristsUS hydrodissection, injection
(llidocaine, triamcinolone)
carpal tunnel1 x Safety (2 w)
4 x Efficacy (BSL,2w)
2 x Safety (BSL,2w)
3 x Efficacy (2 w)
Embedded Image
2019 Rayegani61RCTUS ulnar in planeUS midline in planeCTS27/27injection (triamcinolone, lidocaine)carpal tunnel3 x Safety (BSL,10w)
7 x Efficacy (BSL, 10 w)
Embedded Image
RCTUS radial approachUS ulnar approachCTS30/30injection (triamcinolone)carpal tunnel1 x Safety (12 w)
5 x Efficacy (2,6,12 w)
1 x Efficacy (12 w)3 x Efficacy (BSL, 2,6,12w)Embedded Image
  • *These columns indicate the number of outcomes studied and their categories (eg, 6 × efficacy indicates that six different outcomes related to the efficacy category were studied), with the respective time point(s) when the outcome was determined (parenthesis). The term ‘BSL’ refers to differences concerning the outcomes at BSL. A detailed description of studies and outcomes can be found in supplement.

  • †A green, yellow, red and black circle indicate low, moderate, high and critical risk of bias, respectively. In case multiple circles are depicted, certain outcomes within one study had different risk of bias.

  • AC, acromioclavicular; BSL, baseline; CTS, carpal tunnel syndrome; GH, glenohumeral joint; n.a., not applicable; OA, osteoarthritis; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RoB, Risk of Bias; SASD, subacromial-subdeltoid; SIJ, sacroiliac joint(s); US, ultrasound.;