Table 2

Characteristics of hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients according to use of ts/bDMARDs and/or csDMARDs

Variablets/bDMARDscsDMARDs
HospitalisedNon-hospitalisedP valueHospitalisedNon-hospitalisedP value
(n=71)(n=234)(n=35)(n=86)
Age (years), median (IQR)61.4 (50.6–70.8)52.8 (42.9–61.0)<0.00168.3 (57.1–76.0)50.4 (42.6–61.3)<0.001
Sex (male), n (%)23 (32)77 (33)0.93614 (40)19 (22)0.070
Ethnicity, n (%)0.4220.385
 Caucasian61 (86)213 (91)33 (94)75 (87)
 Latin American7 (10)16 (7)1 (3)9 (11)
 Others3 (4)5 (2)1 (3)2 (2)
Tobacco0.0560.025
 Current smoker7 (10)29 (12)15 (17)
 Former smoker21 (29)39 (17)13 (37)31 (36)
 Non-smoker43 (61)166 (71)22 (63)40 (47)
BMI, mean±SD28.9±5.227.0±5.10.02330.3±7.926.6±5.00.014
 ≥30 obesity, n (%)19 (38)47 (28)0.22110 (50)12 (19)0.018
 Overweight/obesity, n (%)49 (82)121 (65)0.02319 (76)41 (62)0.322
COVID-19 diagnosis, n (%)0.0180.019
 Confirmed cases58 (82)156 (67)29 (83)51 (59)
 Suspected cases13 (18)78 (33)6 (17)35 (41)
Symptomatic COVID-19, n (%)71 (100)200 (85)<0.00135 (100)76 (88)0.061
COVID-19 symptoms, n (%)
 Fever63 (89)105 (45)<0.00129 (83)50 (58)0.011
 Cough54 (76)118 (50)<0.00128 (80)46 (54)0.008
 Headache16 (22)64 (27)0.4467 (20)21 (24)0.812
 Sore throat8 (11)50 (21)0.0591 (3)23 (27)0.002
 Dyspnoea47 (66)41 (17)<0.00123 (66)10 (12)<0.001
 Arthralgia12 (17)40 (17)0.9704 (11)20 (23)0.208
 Myalgia16 (22)51 (22)0.8956 (17)23 (27)0.349
 Chest pain19 (27)21 (9)<0.0017 (20)6 (7)0.051
 Abdominal pain9 (13)12 (5)0.0563 (9)3 (4)0.354
 Diarrhoea17 (24)50 (21)0.6279 (26)12 (14)0.184
 Nausea/vomiting17 (24)16 (7)<0.0013 (9)8 (9)0.899
 Anosmia10 (14)50 (21)0.2323 (9)19 (22)0.080
 Ageusia9 (13)45 (19)0.2862 (6)13 (15)0.226
 Rhinorrhoea5 (7)22 (9)0.6401 (3)13 (15)0.065
 Asthaenia35 (49)66 (28)0.00113 (37)25 (29)0.396
COVID-19 outcomes, n (%)<0.001<0.001
 Recovered without sequelae55 (77)228 (97)20 (57)83 (97)
 Recovered with sequelae6 (9)6 (3)7 (20)2 (2)
 Death10 (14)8 (23)1 (1)
ICU admission, n (%)14 (20)7 (20)
Rheumatic disease0.0020.319
 RA44 (62)86 (37)10 (29)14 (16)
 Spondyloarthropathies20 (28)113 (48)10 (29)22 (26)
 Systemic lupus erythematosus3 (4)10 (4)10 (29)38 (44)
 Other rheumatic diseases4 (6)25 (11)5 (13)12 (14)
Disease duration (years), median (IQR)12.2 (6.0–18.3)10.1 (5.4–15.2)0.16514.6 (10.6–22.5)10.8 (5.0–18.5)0.053
Age (years) at the initiation of biologicals, median (IQR)53.5 (43.3–60.1)47.3 (37.8–53.9)<0.001
Time (years) from diagnosis to the first biological median (IQR)3.9 (1.1–10.0)3.2 (1.0–7.3)0.399
Last available DAS-28 in patients with RA, mean±SD3.4±1.63.1±1.70.2244.6±1.42.8±1.40.002
Treatments
 Glucocorticoids, n (%)39 (55)65 (28)<0.00119 (54)28 (33)0.039
  Dose of glucocorticoids (prior to COVID-19), mean±SD6.0±3.76.2±4.70.8515.9±1.98.0±7.10.429
  Dose of glucocorticoids ≥10 mg, n (%)6 (15)9 (14)0.8293 (16)5 (18)0.853
 NSAIDs, n (%)19 (27)58 (25)0.7567 (20)18 (21)0.909
 ACEI, n (%)12 (17)19 (8)0.0433 (9)11 (13)0.755
Comorbidity, n (%)43 (61)77 (33)<0.00127 (77)28 (33)<0.001
 COPD5 (7)2 (1)0.0096 (17)1 (1)0.002
 Diabetes16 (22)21 (9)0.0067 (20)8 (9)0.130
 Hypertension32 (45)62 (26)0.00520 (57)22 (26)0.001
 Neoplasm5 (7)6 (3)0.1364 (11)3 (4)0.106
 Chronic liver disease6 (9)8 (3)0.1013 (9)2 (2)0.145
 Renal failure3 (4)3 (1)0.1414 (11)1 (1)0.024
  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; bDMARD, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease; csDMARD, conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; ICU, intensive care unit; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; tsDMARD, targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.