Table 2

Study characteristics—studies evaluating axial joint disease

StudySpA criteriaPhysical examExam providerOther evaluationAxial phenotypeAxial imagingSubjects imaged
Al-Jarallah et al 201233YesOtherAxSpAMRI spine
MRI pelvis/SIJ
X-ray*
Sx/aSx
Al-Jarallah et al 201334YesOtherAS, axSpA
Bandinelli et al 201435mNYYesRheumAxSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
MRI pelvis/SIJ
Sx/aSx
Bandyopadhyay et al 201536ASASYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
MRI pelvis/SIJ
MRI spine
Sx/aSx
Barreiro-de Acosta et al 200737YesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray*Sx
Bertolini et al 202038ASASYesRheumAxSpAMRI pelvis/SIJSx/aSx
Beslek et al 200939mNY, ESSGYesRheumASX-ray pelvis/SIJ
MRI pelvis/SIJ
Sx
Christodoulou et al 200240NoSelf-report, chartAxSpA
D’Inca et al 200941ESSG, mNYYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray spine
MRI spine
X-ray hip
MRI hip bone scintigraphy
Sx
De Vlam et al 200042ESSG, mNYYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJSx/aSx
Dmowska-Chalaba et al 201544ASASYesOtherAxSpAX-ray and MRI*
Duricova et al 201745YesOtherAxSpA
Fatemi et al 201646mNYYesRheumASX-ray pelvis/SIJSx
Gotler et al 201547ASASNoSelf-report, chartAxSpACT pelvis/SIJ
GI studies analysed for axial phenotypes
Sx/aSx
Hammoudeh et al 201848ASASYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
Hiller et al 201949YesOtherAS
Isene et al 201550YesOtherAS, axSpA
Karmiris et al 201652YesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray and MRI*
Lakatos et al 200353YesRheumAxSpAX-ray and MRI*
Lanna et al 200854mNYYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
Sx/aSx
Luchetti et al 201955ASASYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray and MRI*Sx
Mocelin et al 201556ASASNoChartAS, axSpA
Orchard et al 200957mNY†YesOtherAS, axSpAMRI pelvis/SIJSx/aSx
Ossum et al 2018 Axial13ASAS, mNYNoSelf-reportAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
Palm et al 200115mNYYesRheumAS
Palm et al 200216mNY, ESSGYesRheumASX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
Peeters et al 200858mNYNoChartAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJSx/aSx
Pokharna et al 200460mNYYesOtherAxSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
Sx/aSx
Queiro et al 200061Amor, ESSG, mNYYesOtherAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
Sx/aSx
Ricart et al 200462NoSelf-reportAS
Sahli et al 201864ASAS, AmorYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
MRI pelvis/SIJ
CT pelvis/SIJ
Sx/aSx
Salvarani et al 200165mNY, ESSGYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
Steer et al 200366mNYYesOtherA AS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
CT pelvis/SIJ
Sx
Stolwijk et al 201367NoSelf-report, chartAxSpA
Subramaniam et al 201568ASASNoSelf-report, chartAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJSx/aSx
Turkcapar et al 200669mNY, ESSGYesRheumAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
CT pelvis/SIJ
Sx/aSx
Van Erp et al 201670ASAS, Amor, ESSG, mNYYesOtherAS, axSpAX-ray pelvis/SIJ
X-ray spine
Sx
Vavricka et al 2011NoPhysician surveyASX-ray*
  • *Axial location not specified.

  • †Adapted for MRI.

  • AS, ankylosing spondylitis; ASAS, Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society; aSx, asymptomatic; AxSpA, axial spondyloarthritis; CT, CAT Scan; ESSG, European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group; GI, gastrointestinal; mNY, modified New York critiera; Rheum, rheumatologist; SIJ, sacroiliac joint; SpA, spondyloarthritis; Sx, symptomatic.