Table 4

Risk factors associated with HZ development in JAKi users

VariablesUnivariable analysis
(n=223)
Multivariable analysis*
(n=222)
OR (95% CI)PAdjusted OR (95% CI)P
Sex
 Male1.00 (ref)
 Female2.62 (0.34 to 20.51)0.359
Age
 <501.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 50–592.11 (0.45 to 9.88)0.7013.08 (0.59 to 15.96)0.18
 60–692.63 (0.67 to 10.33)0.3043.91 (0.89 to 17.26)0.072
 >701.74 (0.28 to 11.04)0.9852.00 (0.28 to 14.49)0.493
Duration of RA
 <10 years1.00 (ref)
 ≥10 years1.48 (0.55 to 3.99)0.439
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <23.01.00 (ref)
 ≥23.00.67 (0.25 to 1.84)0.44
Diabetes mellitus
 No1.00 (ref)
 Yes0.81 (0.18 to 3.75)0.792
CCI score†‡0.77 (0.36 to 1.61)0.482
Number of previous targeted therapies
 01.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 1–21.63 (0.55 to 4.82)0.4771.91 (0.62 to 5.92)0.26
 ≥35.81 (1.28 to 26.36)0.03610.12 (1.92 to 53.49)0.006
Type of JAKi
 Tofacitinib1.00 (ref)
 Baricitinib0.52 (0.15 to 1.88)0.32
Methotrexate
 No1.00 (ref)
 Yes0.96 (0.26 to 3.50)0.945
Oral glucocorticoid
 No1.00 (ref)
 Yes0.98 (0.36 to 2.64)0.968
Glucocorticoid dose (prednisone-equivalent, mg/day)
 01.00 (ref)
 >0 & ≤51.71 (1.00 to 2.93)0.068
 >50.87 (0.30 to 2.56)0.444
DAS28-ESR ‡1.40 (1.04 to 1.89)0.0261.44 (1.06 to 1.97)0.021
HAQ-DI
 <1.01.00 (ref)
 ≥1.01.25 (0.47 to 3.38)0.656
Sleep VAS‡1.13 (0.97 to 1.32)0.131
Fatigue VAS‡1.10 (0.91 to 1.32)0.33
HZ vaccination
 No1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Yes0.59 (0.13 to 2.69)0.4950.39 (0.08 to 1.93)0.251
  • *Multivariable analysis was performed on 222 patients due to missing DAS28-ESR data.

  • †Number of comorbidities was replaced by CCI score because the numbers of patients in each category were small.

  • ‡This variable was analysed as a continuous variable.

  • CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; DAS, disease activity score; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HAQ-DI, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index; HZ, herpes zoster; JAKi, Janus kinase inhibitor; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; ref, reference group; VAS, visual analogue scale.