Table 1

List of included studies

Author (reference)Time since anti-CD20 therapyVaccineNo. of humoral analysis% respondersManufacturer antibody assayNo. of CMI analysis% positive CMICMI assayPopulation (disease)
Boekel et al25AZ, BP, M, JJ742.9RBD-ELISA (in-house)NANANARA, PsA, AxSpA, SLE, SS, MS, other
Perry et al26BP12139.7Elecsys Anti-S assay (Roche)NANANAB-NHL
≤6 months557.3
>6 months6666.7
Haskin et al27BP922.2SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott)NANANAkidney transplant recipients
Prendecki et al9AZ, BP7553.3SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott)4182.9T- SPOT Discovery (Oxford Immunotec)AAV, anti-GBM disease, Podocytopathy, MN, SLE, other
≤6 months4440.92885.7
>6 months3171.01376.9
Herishanu et al28BP7748.1Elecsys Anti-S assay (Roche)NANANACLL
Gurion et al29BP8728.7SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott)NANANAlymphoma
Benjamini et al30BP14326.6one of three kits, see appendixNANANACLL
Ammitzbøll et al31BP1723.5VITROS Immunodiagnostic ProductsNANANASLE, RA
Bigaut et al32BP, M1145.5Abbott or Roche anti-SNANANAMS
Thakkar et al33BP, M, JJ2369.6Abbott anti-S immunoassayNANANALymphoid, Plasma cell, Myeloid
Furer et al34BP8741.4LIAISON (DiaSorin) anti-S quantitative assayNANANARA, PsA, AxSpA, SLE, IIM, Vasculitis
Seyahi et al35CV714.3Elecsys Anti-S assay (Roche).NANANARA, CTD, AxSPA, Vasculitis, FMF, IBD
Benucci et al11BP1478.6S1-RBD IgG FEIA (ThermoFisher, Uppsala Sweden)4100.0IGRA, EuroimmunRA
≤6 months475.0NANANA
>6 months1080.0NANANA
Mrak et al6BP, M7439.2Elecsys Anti-S assay (Roche).4557.8ELISpot assayIgG4, CTD, RA, vasculitis
Simon et al8BP80.0anti-S1 ELISA (Euroimmun)875.0T-SPOT.COVID, Oxford ImmunotecGPA, RA, MS, DM, IgG4
Braun-Moscovici et al36BP4850.0SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott)NANANA
Hadjadj et al7BP2050.0S-Flow assay (spike)1573.3EliSpot in-housevasculitis, CTD, RA, AxSPA
Madelon et al13mRNA3464.7Elecsys Anti-S assay (Roche).3488.2AIM assay CD4 +cellsRA, CTD, vasculitis, MS
Stefanski et al12mRNA/vector (BP, AZ, unknown)1735.3anti-S1 ELISA (Euroimmun)1770.6AIM assay CD4 +cellsRA, AAV
Tallantyre et al37BP, JJ13424.6Kantaro Bioscience USANANANAMS
Moor et al10BP, M9649.0anti-S1 ELISA (Euroimmun)9344.1SARS-CoV-2 IGRA. QuantiFERONAAV, kidney transplantation, lymphoma, RA, SS, SLE, AIHA, MS, IgG4, MN, systemic sclerosis, immune-mediated necrotising myopathy, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigoid
≤6 months2619.2161
>6 months7060.0
Maneikis et al38BP5433.3SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott)NANANAALL, AML, MM, FL, DLBCL, CLL, MCL, HL, other B-NHL
≤6 months100.0
>6 months3946.2
Sormani et al39BP, M17946.4ECLIA, Roche DiagnosticsNANANAMS
  • AAV, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis; AB, antibody; AIIRD, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases; AIM, activation-induced marker; anti-GBM, antiglomerular basement membrane disease; AxSpA, axial spondyloarthritis; AZ, Astra-Zeneca; BP, BioNTech-Pfizer; CMI, cell-mediated immunity; CTD, connective tissue disease; CV, CoronaVac; FMF, familial mediterranean fever; IgG4, IgG4 deposition disease; IIM, idiopathic inflammatory myositis; JJ, Johnson-Johnson; M, Moderna; MN, membranous nephropathy; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SS, Sjögren’s syndrome.