Table 2

Association between types of allergies and risk of RA among the 3515 EIRA cases diagnosed with RA between 1995 and 2016 and and their 5429 controls

Allergy typeNo (%)Adjusted* OR (95% CI)
RA cases (N=3515)Controls
(N=5429)
All RA
(N=3515)
ACPA +RA
(N=2262)
ACPA- RA
(N=1165)
Animal dander†89 (6)134 (5)1.37 (1.03 to 1.82)1.46 (1.06 to 2.01)1.17 (0.73 to 1.88)
Allergic rhinitis270 (9)387 (8)1.30 (1.00 to 1.68)‡1.24 (0.90 to 1.70)‡1.39 (0.97 to 2.00)‡
Atopic dermatitis345 (11)453 (10)1.16 (0.98 to 1.25)§*0.99 (0.83 to 1.18)1.32 (1.06 to 1.65)§*
Metal allergy†43 (3)58 (2)1.27 (0.84 to 1.91)1.23 (0.77 to 1.98)1.54 (0.83 to 2.83)
Respiratory allergy†154 (11)271 (9)1.11 (0.90 to 1.38)1.15 (0.90 to 1.47)0.98 (0.69 to 1.39)
Food allergy†19 (1.4)40 (1.5)1.01 (0.58 to 1.76)1.04 (0.55 to 1.97)1.04 (0.43 to 2.48)
Plants and pollen†130 (9)293 (10)0.94 (0.75 to 1.18)0.96 (0.74 to 1.24)0.91 (0.64 to 1.31)
Allergy to chemicals†24 (1.8)51 (1.9)0.85 (0.51 to 1.40)0.81 (0.45 to 1.48)0.82 (0.36 to 1.83)
  • *Adjusting for age, sex, residential area, body mass index, education and smoking. Bold values are statistically significant (p<0.05).

  • †Data only available for the first version of questionnaire, 2006 and prior, N=1884 RA cases and N=2146 controls.

  • ‡Interaction term with smoking was significant (p<0.05). OR shown assumes most common scenario (never smoker).

  • §Interaction term with age was significant (p<0.05). OR shown assumes median age (55 years).

  • ACPA, anticitrullinated peptide antibodies; EIRA, Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis.