Table 3

Multivariable analysis of associations between measurements of pain sensitisation and QoL outcomes

β (95% CI)
Number of painful body sitesPPTarmPainDETECT
WOMAC pain2.78 (1.05 to 4.51)**−0.01 (−0.04 to 0.14)2.34 (1.79 to 2.88)**
WOMAC function2.46 (0.75 to 4.17)**−0.02 (−0.05 to 0.01)2.27 (1.73 to 2.80)**
PCS0.79 (−1.77 to 0.21)0.02 (0.004 to 0.04)*0.63 (−0.97 to 0.28)**
MCS1.44 (−2.45 to to 0.42)**0.01 (−0.002 to 0.03)0.56 (−0.91 to 0.20)**
  • Adjustments: age, sex, ethnicity (Chinese vs non-Chinese), education (none, primary, secondary and above), body mass index, radiographic grading (KL0-3 vs KL4) and functional comorbidity index.

  • Bold: statistically significant associations.

  • *P<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • KL, Kellgren-Lawrence grading; MCS, mental component summary; PCS, physical component summary; PPTarm, pressure pain threshold taken at volar side of right forearm; QoL, quality of life; SF-36, Medical Outcome Survey Short-form 36; WOMAC, Western Ontario and McMaster University Index.