Table 3

Characteristics of patients with rheumatic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: non-hospitalised versus hospitalised COVID-19 cases

Patient characteristicsNon-hospitalised patients (n=324)Hospitalised patients (n=23)
Age, years—mean (SD)54 (13)61 (11)
Female sex—no. (%)231 (71)9 (39)
Male sex—no. (%)93 (29)14 (61)
Body mass index, kg/m2—mean (SD)25 (5)27 (5)
Caucasian race—no. (%)266 (84)16 (76)
Educational level—no. (%)
 High142 (46)7 (35)
 Middle106 (34)8 (40)
 Low62 (20)5 (25)
Current smoking status—no. (%)26 (8)1 (5)
Coexisting conditions—no. (%)
Cardiovascular disease30 (9)4 (17)
Chronic pulmonary disease34 (11)8 (35)
Diabetes10 (3)4 (17)
Obesity60 (19)5 (22)
Immune-mediated inflammatory disease type—no. (%)
Rheumatoid arthritis188 (58)10 (43)
Psoriatic arthritis54 (17)6 (26)
Ankylosing spondylitis40 (12)5 (22)
Axial or peripheral spondyloarthritis6 (2)1 (4)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis8 (3)0 (0)
Systemic lupus erythematosus14 (4)0 (0)
Vasculitis16 (5)1 (4)
Polymyalgia rheumatica12 (4)1 (4)
Sjögren’s disease16 (5)0 (0)
Systemic sclerosis7 (2)0 (0)
Mixed connective tissue disease2 (0.6)0 (0)
Other rheumatic diseases17 (5)1 (4)
Disease activity—mean (SD)
RAPID-3 score11 (7)13 (6)
BASDAI4 (2.1)5 (1.9)
Immunosuppressive medication*—no. (%)
No immunosuppressive medication68 (21)5 (22)
csDMARDs176 (54)11 (48)
 Methotrexate129 (40)8 (35)
 Hydroxychloroquine48 (15)1 (4)
 Sulfasalazine22 (7)1 (4)
bDMARDs121 (37)8 (35)
 TNF inhibitor101 (31)4 (17)
 Tocilizumab5 (2)0 (0)
 Abatacept7 (2)0 (0)
 B-cell targeting therapy4 (1)3 (13)
JAK inhibitor2 (0.6)0 (0)
Oral glucocorticoids38 (12)4 (17)
Dose—median (IQR)6 (5–13)5 (5–5)
  • Data are mean (SD), median (IQR) or n (%).

  • *Immunosuppressive treatment at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection. When the infection date was unknown due to lack of a PCR test result, medication use at baseline was used.

  • BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; bDMARDs, biological DMARDs; csDMARDs, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; JAK, janus kinase; RAPID-3, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data-3; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.