Table 1

Effect of vertebral corner inflammation (VCI) and vertebral corner fat deposition (VCFD) on syndesmophyte development and growth

Patterns of lesions over time on MRINew syndesmophyte
OR (95% CI)
New/grown syndesmophyte
OR (95% CI)
Regarding VCI only
 VCI at any TP2.20 (1.23 to 3.93)2.20 (1.37 to 3.52)
 VCI at least at baseline, irrespective of VCI at other TPs2.53 (1.32 to 4.84)2.60 (1.63 to 4.15)
 VCI at baseline only2.47 (0.78 to 7.77)2.35 (1.00 to 5.54)
 VCI at baseline and at least one other TP2.50 (1.41 to 4.44)2.42 (1.56 to 3.74)
 VCI at all three TPs1.93 (0.87 to 4.29)2.16 (1.25 to 3.72)
 VCI at ≥2 consecutive TPs2.25 (1.14 to 4.41)2.14 (1.22 to 3.77)
Regarding VCFD only
 VCFD at any TP2.30 (1.69 to 3.12)2.42 (1.86 to 3.16)
 VCFD at least at baseline, irrespective of VCFD at other TPs2.28 (1.68 to 3.09)2.29 (1.78 to 2.95)
 VCFD at baseline only*0.63 (0.19 to 2.07)
 VCFD at baseline and at least one other TP2.47 (1.83 to 3.33)2.44 (1.91 to 3.11)
 VCFD at all three TPs2.58 (1.80 to 3.69)2.33 (1.70 to 3.18)
Regarding both VCI and VCFD
 VCI on ≥1 TP and absence of VCFD on all TPs2.26 (1.32 to 3.89)1.87 (1.11 to 3.13)
 VCFD on ≥1 TP and absence of VCI on all TPs2.15 (1.56 to 2.98)1.91 (1.43 to 2.54
 VCI precedes VCFD1.84 (0.51 to 6.74)2.51 (0.88 to 7.17)
 VCI precedes or coincides with VCFD. VCFD does not precede VCI1.84 (0.93 to 3.64)2.37 (1.40 to 4.00)
 VCI and VCFD precede each other or coincide1.73 (0.82 to 3.63)2.12 (1.18 to 3.82)
 VCI and VCFD coincide at the same TP2.04 (0.42 to 9.76)2.61 (0.90 to 7.57)
 Absence of VCI and VCFD on all TPs0.36 (0.26 to 0.51)0.37 (0.27 to 0.52)
  • Each OR is derived from a separate multilevel GEE model, in which the effect of the MRI pattern and the outcome is assessed at the vertebral corner level. MRI scores are used as consensus scores, and ldCT scores are used as individual reader scores. Each model is adjusted for within-patient and within-ldCT reader correlations, as well as age, sex and smoking status never/ever. Statistical significance is indicated in bold. * predictor is omitted from the model for predicting failure perfectly.

  • GEE, generalised estimating equations; ldCT, low-dose CT; TP, timepoint.