Table 3

Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis of factors associated with the 3-point ordinal COVID-19 severity outcome scale (no hospitalisation, hospitalisation, death), with comorbidity count instead of comorbidities listed individually (N=348, primary analysis)

OR (95% CI)P value
Age (per decade)1.59 (1.31 to 1.91)<0.001
Male sex1.57 (0.95 to 2.59)0.076
Region
 EuropeREFn/a
 North America0.87 (0.48 to 1.58)0.648
 Other4.55 (2.37 to 8.76)<0.001
Pandemic calendar period
 On/before 15 June 2020REFn/a
 16 June to 30 September 20200.55 (0.26 to 1.20)0.132
 On/after 1 October 20200.61 (0.37 to 1.00)0.051
Comorbidities
 NoneREFn/a
 One1.41 (0.73 to 2.74)0.305
 Two or more2.63 (1.39 to 4.98)0.003
Disease activity
 RemissionREFn/a
 Low/moderate disease activity1.19 (0.63 to 2.25)0.594
 High disease activity3.50 (1.25 to 9.83)0.018
Glucocorticoid (prednisolone-equivalent dose)
 No glucocorticoidsREFn/a
 >0 to 7.5 mg/day1.08 (0.57 to 2.05)0.820
 >7.5 mg/day2.40 (1.09 to 5.28)0.031
IVIg0.42 (0.15 to 1.18)0.101
DMARD/immunosuppressant medication category
 csDMARD only (HCQ/MTX/SSZ/LEF monotherapy or combination therapy)REFn/a
 No DMARD/immunosuppressant1.85 (0.90 to 3.78)0.094
 AZA monotherapy1.78 (0.71 to 4.43)0.216
 MMF monotherapy1.25 (0.54 to 2.89)0.601
 AZA/MMF combination therapy (except combination with RTX or b/tsDMARDs)0.77 (0.27 to 2.15)0.615
 CSA/CYC/TAC monotherapy or combination therapy (except RTX/b/tsDMARDs)1.61 (0.54 to 4.79)0.386
 b/tsDMARD monotherapy or combination therapy (except RTX)1.65 (0.50 to 5.43)0.411
 RTX (monotherapy or combination therapy with any other drug)2.71 (1.28 to 5.72)0.009
  • Statistically significant OR are highlighted in bold.

  • AZA, azathioprine; bDMARD, biologic DMARD; CSA, ciclosporin; csDMARD, conventional synthetic DMARD; CYC, cyclophosphamide; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IL, interleukin; IVIg, intravenous immunoglobulin; IVIg, intravenous immunoglobulin; JAKi, Janus kinase inhibitors; LEF, leflunomide; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; MTX, methotrexate; RTX, rituximab; SSZ, sulfasalazine; TAC, tacrolimus; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; tsDMARD, targeted synthetic DMARD.