Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Clinical characteristicAll SLE (n=38)LN (n=17)*Non-LN (n=21)
Sex, male/female2/361/161/20
Age, year34.51±9.9933.0±10.0336.0±10.75
SLE disease duration, year8.32±4.997.33±5.04†9.25±5.22
History of diabetes‡5 (13.16%)3 (17.65%)2 (9.52%)
Body mass index, kg/m223.97±3.9122.93±3.2524.47±4.44
Blood pressure, mean (SD), mm Hg
 Systolic121.32±15.33123.4±14.0119.68±16.50
 Diastolic82.59±9.6383.60±8.7681.79±10.43
SLEDAI, mean±SD4.24±2.625.06±2.462.62±1.94
 SLEDAI score ≥612 (31.58%)11 (64.71%)1 (4.76%)
Proteinuria ≥1.5 g/24 hours11 (28.95%)11 (64.71%)
 24 hours urine protein (g)1.7 (1.24, 2.95)
Haemoglobin120.24±20.79114.29±21.0125.3±19.73
ALT28.43±13.6724.43±12.0130.71±14.80
Serum creatinine66.74±26.2873.81±35.1461.71±15.55
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 (EPI)118.40±27.93111.66±33.70123.86±21.57
 eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2, n (%)5 (13.16%)4 (23.53%)1 (4.76%)
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate25.03±24.028.18±29.0025.10±19.36
C reactive protein, mg/L6.20±12.133.18±1.808.35±15.60
Anti-dsDNA, positive24 (63.16%)11 (64.71%)13 (61.90%)
C3 concentration (g/L)0.86±0.310.88±0.300.84±0.32
 C3 concentration <0.9 g/L21 (55.26%)9 (52.94%)12 (57.14%)
 C4 concentration (g/L)0.17±0.110.20±0.100.15±0.11
 C4 concentration <0.1 g/L11 (28.95%)3 (17.65%)8 (38.10%)
Treatment
 Prednisone (mg/day)14.21±7.3616.32±7.1312.50±7.25
 Prednisone dosage ≥20 mg/day, n (%)9 (23.68%)6 (35.29%)3 (13.64%)
 Hydroxychloroquine33 (86.84%)15 (88.24%)18 (85.71%)
 RAASis9 (23.68%)8 (47.06%)1 (4.76%)
 Other antihypertensive drugs11 (28.95%)2 (11.76%)9 (42.86%)
Immunosuppressive drugs
 Mycophenolate10 (26.32%)6 (35.29%)4 (19.05%)
 Azathioprine2 (5.26%)02 (9.52%)
 Thalidomide4 (10.53%)04 (19.05%)
 Cyclophosphamide4 (10.53%)3 (17.65%)1 (4.76%)
 Tacrolimus or ciclosporin3 (7.89%)2 (11.76%)1 (4.76%)
 Sirolimus1 (2.63%)01 (4.76%)
 Rituximab1 (2.63%)01 (4.76%)
  • *13 (76.47%) patients with renal biopsy and ISN/RPS 2003 class II in 1 (5.88%), III/IV in 4 (23.53%), III/IV+V in 3 (17.65%), V in 5 (29.41%) individuals. The cumulative number of immunosuppressants previously exposed among 17 patients with LN was 4 (IQR 2, 5).

  • †Disease duration of LN was 2.7 (2, 6.2) years.

  • ‡Duration of diabetes was 0.5 (0.28, 3.61) years.

  • ALT, alanine transaminase; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; LN, lupus nephritis; RAASis, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index.