Table 1

Characteristics and engagement data for included eHealth studies

First author (year)DiagnosisNAge, years (SD)Female, %Duration, daysRecruitmenteHealth toolMonitoring frequencyIncentivesEngagement (definition)Engagement (%)
Austin (2020)61RA2032–847585Physical/clinicSmartphone appDaily; weekly; monthlyRemindersCompletion rate86; 85; 58
Bellamy (2010)62OA1263 (9)7512Physical/clinicSmartphone appOnce every 3 daysRemindersCompletion rate100
Beukenhorst (2020)30OA26645090Advertisements -> eventWAT (C)Continuous+PROs daily; weekly; monthlyRemindersProportion of days worn (WAT) + completion rate (PRO)73 + 66; 69; 89
Bingham III (2019)39RA130553 (12)7784Physical/clinicPDA e-diaryDailyRemindersCompletion rate94
RA68452 (12)8284Physical/clinicPDA e-diaryDailyRemindersCompletion rate93
Broderick (2013)44OA9857 (10)6028Online survey -> phone callWeb-basedDaily; weeklyFinancial; phone callsCompletion rate96; 100
Bromberg (2014)23JIA5913 (3)4528Physical/clinicSmartphone appThrice dailyReminders; financial; phone callsCompletion rate66
Christodoulou (2014)29OA10057 (10)6028Online survey -> phone callWeb-basedDailyReminders; financial; phone callsCompletion rate93
Colls (2021)40RA7855 (11)81210Physical/clinicSmartphone appDailyRemindersCompletion rate79
Connelly (2010)63JIA912 (3)8914Physical/clinicPDA e-diaryThrice dailyRemindersCompletion rate88
Connelly (2012)64JIA4313 (3)8628Physical/clinicSmartphone appThrice dailyReminders; phone callsCompletion rate69
Connelly (2017)65JIA6613 (3)7330Physical/clinicSmartphone appThrice dailyReminders; financialCompletion rate81
Costantino (2022)66AxSpA99NR64356Online (SPONDY+ platform)Web-basedWeeklyNRCompletion rate54
Crouthamel (2018)27RA38848 (12)8184Social mediaSmartphone appWeekly; monthlyRemindersProportion of active participants (per week)20-100*
Druce (2017)31RA (19%) SpA (9%) Arthritis (40%)
Gout (3%) FMS (24%) Headache (7%) Neuropathic (13%) Other(23%)
637049 (13)81180Advertisements; directing to appSmartphone appDailyRemindersCategorical engagement: - High (15%) - Moderate (22%)
- Low (38%)
- Tourists (25%).
For each group: proportion of days with complete data
High: 70 Moderate: 28
Low: 3 Tourists: 1
Elmagboul (2020)21Gout33/44†49 (15)15183Physical/clinicWAT (C) + smartphone appContinuous + ePROs weeklyRemindersProportion of days worn + completion rate61; 81
Fu (2019)67OA25262 (8)7990Online survey -> phone callWeb-basedOnce every 10 days + in case of flareRemindersCompletion rate81
Gilbert (2021)68OA212765 (9)567Physical/clinicWAT (R)ContinuousNRProportion wearing WAT ≥4/7 days91
Harbottle (2018)35JIA12145090Physical/clinicWAT (R)ContinuousNRProportion of days worn17
Heale (2018)36JIA28157428Physical/clinicWAT (C)ContinuousRemindersProportion of days worn72
Heiberg (2007)69RA3858 (13)6684Mail -> eventPDA e-diaryDaily; weeklyPhone callsCompletion rate (overall daily/weekly)85
Jacquemin (2018)37RA & axSpA17746 (12)6490Physical/clinicWAT (C)ContinuousNRProportion of days worn88
Kempin (2022)25AxSpA6942 (11)42168Physical/clinicSmartphone appOnce every 2 weeksReminders (1/2); phone callsProportion providing requested data ≥80% of moments by week 1229 (but 81% exported at least once)
Lalloo (2021)70JIA6015 (2)7856Physical/clinicSmartphone appDailyFinancial; phone callsCompletion rate52
Lazaridou (2019)71OA12166 (9)597Physical/clinicPDA e-diaryDailyNRCompletion rate98
Lee (2013)42RA8518+ (categorical)7760Physical/clinicSMSMonthlyReminders; financialCompletion rate75
Lee (2020)43JIA1413 (2)6456Physical/clinicSmartphone appTwice daily; daily; weekly + in case of painPhone callsCompletion rate51; 63; 38
Martin (2021)72RA104OngoingSMSSMSMonthlyRemindersCompletion rate69
McBeth (2022)33RA25457 (49-64)8130Email -> phone callSmartphone appThrice daily; daily; once every 10 daysRemindersCompletion rate (overall thrice daily & daily)92
Murray (2022)73RA2618+ (categorical)7756Mail‡ -> phone callSmartphone appDaily (alternating cycle)RemindersCompletion rate66
Nowell (2020)32RA27850 (11)9284Email to ArthritisPower membersWAT (C) + smartphone appContinuous + PROs daily; weeklyReminders; financial; phone calls/emailsProportion providing requested data >70% of days82 + 57; 87
Nowell (2021)28OA (65%); RA (49%); PsA (26%); AS (16%); FMS (40%); OP (16%); SLE (9%)25356 (9)8990Email to ArthritisPower membersSmartphone appMonthlyRemindersProportion completing all ePROs55
Östlind (2021)38OA7457 (5)8784Physical/clinicWAT (C)ContinuousEmailsProportion of days worn88
Pers (2021)74RA4518-7573183Physical/clinicSmartphone appWeeklyReminders Phone callsCompletion rate (final 16 weeks)67
Pouls (2021)22Gout2957 (13)390Physical/clinicSmartphone appDailyRemindersCompletion rate96
Reade (2017)57RA2060Physical/clinicSmartphone appDailyRemindersCompletion rate68
Renskers (2020)34RA & SpA4757 (11)5714-597 (mean 350)Physical/clinicWeb-basedFree to choose (at baseline)RemindersCompletion rate68
Rouzaud-Laborde (2021)45OA2873 (6)7014Physical/clinicWAT-based ePRO-app (C)Thrice daily; dailyRemindersCompletion rate (adjusted for wear time - technical issues)81; 93
Seppen (2020)41RA4254 (13)8628Physical/clinicSmartphone appWeeklyNRCompletion rate82
RA2752 (11)7828Physical/clinicSmartphone appWeeklyNRCompletion rate70
Seppen (2022)11RA5058 (13)56356Physical/clinicSmartphone appWeeklyReminders (only 1 month)Completion rate59
Skrepnik (2017)46OA21163 (9)5090 (+ 90 day follow-up)Physical/clinicWAT (C) ± smartphone app (1:1)ContinuousReminders (app only)Proportion providing data >80% of days (first 90 days)91
Stinson (2008)58JIA1313 (3)8514Physical/clinicPDA e-diaryThrice dailyReminders Financial Phone callsCompletion rate72
Tyrrell (2016)24AS22350 (14)3984Email/social mediaWeb-basedWeeklyRemindersCompletion rate67
Wilson (2013)75OA14466 (10)5722Physical/clinicPDA e-diaryDailyNRCompletion rate92
Yu (2022)26OA6561 (6)462x7Physical/clinicWAT (C)ContinuousNRProportion wearing WAT ≥6/7 days99
Zaslavsky (2019)76OA2471 (4)70133Physical/clinicWAT (C)ContinuousReminders Financial Phone callsProportion of hours worn per day88
  • *Proportion of active participants was reported separately for each week, ranging from 100% in week 1 to approximately 20% at week 12.

  • †ePROs were evaluated in 44 participants, WAT in a subgroup of 33 participants from the same study.

  • ‡Recruitment letters were mailed to patients who participated in the preceding trial with the same smartphone app.40

  • AS, ankylosing spondylitis; FMS, fibromyalgia syndrome; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; OA, osteoarthritis; OP, osteoporosis; PDA, personal digital assistant; PROs, patient-reported outcomes; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SMS, short message service; SpA, spondyloarthritis; WAT, wearable activity tracker (either consumer-grade C or research-grade R).