Table 4

The impact of immunosuppressive therapy on neutralising capacity and anti-RBD-IgG levels in patients with AIRD (n=308) compared with controls (n=296)

Immunosuppressive therapy*, nNeutralising capacity (%)Anti-RBD-IgG (S/CO)
Median (IQR)Unadjusted
p value
p value
Median (IQR)Unadjusted
p value
p value
Immunocompetent controls, n=29696.5 (93.5–97.1)(ref)(ref)6.7 (6.3–7.1)(ref)(ref)
AIRD without immunosuppression, n=1995.9 (94.0–96.7)0.7220.7226.2 (5.3–6.9)0.3010.357
Anti-IL-1 mono, n=395.3 (45.4–96.6)0.3816.1 (2.1–6.8)0.207
Anti-IL-17 mono, n=1496.0 (89.0–96.5)0.7670.6296.6 (4.4–6.9)0.0360.757
Anti-IL-6 mono, n=1477.3 (55.1–91.8)0.0010.0735 (3.9–5.6)0.0350.460
Anti-TNFα mono, n=4694.0 (88.2–95.9)0.4600.7676.1 (5.1–6.8)0.0030.436
Azathioprine+others, n=1895.1 (82.9–96.9)<0.0010.0326.2 (2.3–7.2)<0.0010.008
CYC+others, n=589.2 (48.0–95.4)0.0830.2215.5 (2.2–6.3)0.0400.154
GC mono, n=995.5 (93.7–96.3)0.7170.5636 (5–7.1)0.6070.427
HCQ mono, n=1195.7 (95.3–96.7)0.7510.9576.5 (6–7.1)
JAK inhibitors mono, n=2171.1 (52.4–91.2)<0.0010.0063.2 (2.3–6.3)<0.0010.006
Leflunomide+others, n=894.6 (87.1–96.2)0.6480.6416.1 (5.7–7)0.0560.041
MMF+others, n=1074.9 (32.1–96.6)<0.0010.0024.6 (0.2–6.2)<0.0010.004
MTX mono, n=3287.3 (43.1–96.2)<0.0010.1135.4 (0.5–6.7)<0.0010.005
MTX+JAKi, n=677.5 (54.5–95.8)0.0320.1114.6 (1.7–5.8)0.0040.058
MTX+others, n=2579.2 (61.6–93.5)<0.0010.0815.4 (1.6–6.7)<0.0010.006
RTX ≤6 months before vacc., n=233.7 (0–9.6)<0.0010.0010 (0–0)<0.001<0.001
RTX >6 months before vacc., n=1720.3 (7.0–74.0)<0.0010.0020 (0–2.1)<0.001<0.001
Sulfasalazine+others, n=378.5 (76.9–96.9)0.1980.1675.3 (2.8–7.0)0.3150.685
Others, n=1393.1 (27.3–96.3)<0.0010.0295.6 (0.6–6.9)<0.0010.003
No consistent therapy, n=1194.5 (53.8–96.7)5.9 (2.5–6.6)
  • P values were estimated by a Wald test as combined p value of the two-part model. Statistically significant results in bold. A hyphen indicates that calculation was not possible within the model.

  • Adjusted multivariable analysis includes the covariates age, sex, BMI, type of vaccination, vaccine interval in days, interval between second vaccination and antibody testing in days, rheumatic diagnosis, comorbidity and immunosuppressive therapy.

  • *Composition of combination therapy groups is given in online supplemental table 1.

  • BMI, body mass index; CYC, cyclophosphamide; GC, glucocorticoid; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IL, interleukin; JAK, Janus kinase; MMF, mycophenolate; mono, monotherapy; MTX, methotrexate; ref, reference; RTX, rituximab; S/CO, signal/cut-off; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.