Table 2

Association between SLE and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection/breakthrough infection, COVID-19 hospitalisation and death

Unvaccinated cohortVaccinated cohort
Three monthsNine months
SARS-CoV-2 infectionBreakthrough infection
SLE
(n=3245)
General population (n=1 755 034)SLE
(n=2860)
General population (n=1 388093)
Event, n 8437 44710954 314
Mean follow-up, months 2.362.567.716.93
Weighted IR*, per 1000 person-months 10.958.504.944.92
HR* (95% CI) 1.28 (1.03 to 1.59)1.00 (ref)1.05 (0.87 to 1.26)1.00 (ref)
COVID-19 hospitalisation COVID-19 hospitalisation
SLE
(n=3245)
General population (n=1 755 034) SLE
(n=2860)
General population (n=1 388 093)
Event, n 254464102130
Mean follow-up, months 2.392.597.777.02
Weighted IR*, per 1000 person-months 3.211.770.450.30
HR* (95% CI)1.82 (1.21 to 2.74)1.00 (ref)1.49 (0.79 to 2.80)1.00 (ref)
COVID-19 death COVID-19 death
SLE
(n=3245)
General population (n=1 755 034) SLE
(n=2860)
General population (n=1 388 093)
Event, n 99122167
Mean follow-up, months 2.402.607.797.02
Weighted IR*, per 1000 person-months 1.160.530.090.07
HR* (95% CI)2.16 (1.00 to 4.79)1.00 (ref)1.46 (0.25 to 8.46)1.00 (ref)
COVID-19 combined severe outcomes COVID-19 combined severe outcomes
SLE
(n=3245)
General population (n=1 755 034) SLE
(n=2860)
General population (n=1 388 093)
Event, n 305122112243
Mean follow-up, months 2.392.597.777.02
Weighted IR*, per 1000 person-months 3.862.180.490.36
HR* (95% CI)1.78 (1.21 to 2.61)1.00 (ref)1.37 (0.74 to 2.57)1.00 (ref)
  • *Estimates were time-stratified overlap weighted of propensity score, weighted Cox regression using coxphw method were applied if proportional hazard assumption was violated.

  • IR, incidence rate; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.