Table 4

Performance of individual criteria

CriterionSLENon-SLESensitivitySpecificity
Pos.Neg.Pos.Neg.Sensitivity with 95% CISpecificity with 95% CI
Criteria sets
 1997 ACR classification49611015275681.8% (78.5% to 84.8%)99.5% (99.1% to 99.7%)
 2019 EULAR/ACR classification5277952271987.0% (84.0% to 89.5%)98.1% (97.5% to 98.6%)
 2019 EULAR/ACR classification without entry criterion5456177269489.9% (87.3% to 92.2%)97.2% (96.5% to 97.8%)
Entry criterion
 History of ANA positivity57531938183394.9% (92.8% to 96.5%)66.1% (64.4% to 67.9%)
Immunology domains
 Anti-dsDNA antibodies478128246252578.9% (75.4% to 82.1%)91.1% (90.0% to 92.2%)
 Anti-Sm antibodies7053618275311.6% (9.1% to 14.4%)99.4% (99.0% to 99.6%)
 Low C3 and C42673390277144.1% (40.1% to 48.1%)100.0% (99.9% to 100.0%)
 Low C3 or C44631432276976.4% (72.8% to 79.7%)99.9% (99.7% to 100.0%)
 Antiphospholipid antibodies14745925274624.3% (20.9% to 27.9%)99.1% (98.7% to 99.4%)
Clinical domains
 Proteinuria175431109266228.9% (25.3% to 32.7%)96.1% (95.3% to 96.8%)
 Class III/IV nephritis785280277112.9% (10.3% to 15.8%)100.0% (99.9% to 100.0%)
 Class II/V nephritis44562327687.3% (5.3% to 9.6%)99.9% (99.7% to 100.0%)
 Autoimmune haemolysis675394276711.1% (8.7% to 13.8%)99.9% (99.6% to 100.0%)
 Leucopenia102504150262116.8% (13.9% to 20.1%)94.6% (93.7% to 95.4%)
 Thrombocytopenia78528354241712.9% (10.3% to 15.8%)87.2% (85.9% to 88.4%)
 Acute lupus erythematosus24236411276039.9% (36.0% to 44.0%)99.6% (99.3% to 99.8%)
 Subacute lupus erythematosus10596627651.7% (0.8% to 3.0%)99.8% (99.5% to 99.9%)
 Discoid lupus erythematosus16644014275727.4% (23.9% to 31.1%)99.5% (99.2% to 99.7%)
 Non-scarring alopecia6554125274610.7% (8.4% to 13.5%)99.1% (98.7% to 99.4%)
 Oral ulcers11649017275419.1% (16.1% to 22.5%)99.4% (99.0% to 99.6%)
 Pleural/pericardial effusion117489109266219.3% (16.2% to 22.7%)96.1% (95.3% to 96.8%)
 Acute pericarditis6354321275010.4% (8.1% to 13.1%)99.2% (98.8% to 99.5%)
 Joint involvement26234452271943.2% (39.2% to 47.3%)98.1% (97.5% to 98.6%)
 Fever465604827237.6% (5.6% to 10.0%)98.3% (97.7% to 98.7%)
 Seizure325742227495.3% (3.6% to 7.4%)99.2% (98.8% to 99.5%)
 Delirium0606327680.0% (0.0% to 0.6%)99.9% (99.7% to 100.0%)
 Psychosis15591227692.5% (1.4% to 4.0%)99.9% (99.7% to 100.0%)
  • Sensitivities and specificities are given with 95% CI. LL, lower limit of the 95% CI. UL, upper limit of the 95% CI. aPL, presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (ie, detection of β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and/or cardiolipin antibodies and/or positive lupus anticoagulant assay).

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology; ANA, anti-nuclear antibody; dsDNA, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.