Table 3

The associated factors of incident diabetes for the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

PredictorAdjusted HR (95% CI)P value
Age, per year1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)<0.001
Male1.33 (1.04 to 1.70)0.022
Body mass index at RA diagnosis, kg/m2
 <18.5 kg/m2Reference
 18.5–25 kg/m21.68 (1.05 to 2.69)0.032
 25–30 kg/m22.38 (1.47 to 3.85)<0.001
 ≥30 kg/m23.30 (1.97 to 5.51)<0.001
 Missing1.77 (1.04 to 2.99)0.034
Smoking0.93 (0.65 to 1.32)0.669
Alcohol drinking1.18 (0.77 to 1.79)0.453
Comorbidity
 Hypertension1.89 (1.55 to 2.31)<0.001
 Hyperlipidaemia2.09 (1.42 to 3.06)<0.001
 Gout1.03 (0.75 to 1.42)0.837
 Chronic kidney disease1.06 (0.80 to 1.41)0.676
 Hepatitis B virus0.89 (0.59 to 1.34)0.578
 Hepatitis C virus1.35 (1.02 to 1.79)0.036
 Coronary artery disease0.97 (0.75 to 1.26)0.841
 Stroke0.72 (0.45 to 1.15)0.167
Medication
 Methotrexate0.88 (0.70 to 1.11)0.287
 Hydroxychloroquine0.52 (0.42 to 0.65)<0.001
 Sulfasalazine0.69 (0.54 to 0.87)0.002
 Leflunomide0.79 (0.51 to 1.21)0.284
 TNF-α inhibitors*0.69 (0.46 to 1.03)0.067
 Other bDMARDs†0.78 (0.39 to 1.53)0.467
 Time-dependent use of steroid2.18 (1.74 to 2.72)<0.001
 Time-dependent use of statin0.96 (0.61 to 1.51)0.844
  • *Etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab.

  • †Abatacept, tofacitinib, baricitinib, tocilizumab and rituximab.

  • bDMARDs, biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.