Table 4

Impact of male sex on spinal radiographic progression in axSpA

Definition of progressionVariableCervical spineLumbar spine
OR95% CIP valueOR95% CIP value
≥2 mSASSS unitsMale sex (total effect)2.571.23 to 5.380.012.231.14 to 4.400.02
TNFi use prior to X-ray interval0.650.39 to 1.080.100.660.40 to 1.110.12
Length of the X-ray interval (+ 1 year)1.040.52 to 2.070.911.160.58 to 2.320.67
≥1 new syndesmophyteMale sex (total effect)6.512.71 to 15.6<0.0015.122.26 to 11.6<0.001
TNFi use prior to X-ray interval0.980.59 to 1.620.930.540.32 to 0.910.02
Length of the X-ray interval (+ 1 year)1.990.96 to 4.100.060.660.77 to 3.590.20
  • Results from different multivariable models with spinal radiographic progression defined as an increase of ≥2 mSASSS units in 2 years or as the formation of ≥1 new syndesmophyte in 2 years. Analyses performed in 724 radiographic intervals from 505 patients (59 events in the cervical spine and 64 events in the lumbar spine with progression defined as ≥2 mSASSS units and 62 events in the cervical spine and 69 events in the lumbar spine with progression defined as formation of ≥1 new syndesmophyte). The total effect of sex on radiographic progression includes a direct effect as well as in indirect effect via an impact of baseline spinal radiographic damage.

  • axSpA, axial spondyloarthritis; mSASSS, Modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score; TNFi, tumour necrosis factor inhibitor.