Table 4

Comparison of maternal pSS with different fetal outcomes

Normal pregnancy
(n=68)
Adverse pregnancy outcomes (n=96)t/χ2P valueFetal survival
(n=128)
Fetal loss* (n=32)t/χ2P value
Age (years)†31.47±4.0632.33±4.86−1.2350.21932.02±4.2331.75±5.730.3030.762
Course of disease (months)†‡40.83±33.7041.97±42.04−0.8630.17942.96±38.9630.24±29.061.5910.114
pSS diagnosed before pregnancy§57 (83.82%)82 (85.42%)0.0780.780108 (84.38%)27 (84.38%)0.0001.000
History of miscarriage§45 (66.18%)55 (57.29%)1.3210.25177 (60.16%)17 (53.13%)0.5220.470
ART conception§14 (20.59%)23 (23.96%)0.2590.61130 (23.43%)7 (21.88%)0.0350.851
Accompany diseases during pregnancy§
 Hypertension1 (1.47%)5 (5.21%)0.6950.4046 (4.69%)0 (0%)0.5300.466
 Diabetes7 (10.29%)11 (11.46%)0.0550.81415 (11.72%)2 (6.25%)0.3330.564
 Thyroid disease17 (25.00%)21 (21.88%)0.2180.64033 (25.78%)4 (12.50%)2.5400.111
 Viral hepatitis B1 (1.47%)0 (0%)/0.4151 (0.78%)0 (3.13%)/1.000
Pregnancy medicine§
 GC47 (69.12%)76 (79.17%)2.1440.14399 (77.34%)22 (68.75%)1.0260.311
 HCQ48 (70.59%)69 (71.88%)0.0150.90296 (75.00%)19 (59.38%)3.0920.079
 CyA1 (1.47%)8 (8.33%)2.4120.1206 (4.69%)3 (9.38%)0.3610.548
 LMWH26 (38.24%)31 (32.29%)0.6200.43151 (39.84%)6 (18.75%)4.9670.026
 ASA36 (52.94%)42 (43.75%)1.3480.24668 (53.13%)10 (31.25%)4.9030.027
Serological indicators† ¶
 C3 (before pregnancy)1.11±0.20 (23/68)1.02±0.16 (43/96)1.8770.0651.06±0.17 (47/128)1.01±0.18 (15/32)0.9190.362
 Low C3 level (before pregnancy) (<0.9 g/L)4/23 (17.40%)8/43 (18.60%)0.0001.0008/47 (17.02%)3/15 (9.38%)0.0001.000
 C4 (before pregnancy)0.25±0.08 (23/68)0.22±0.06 (43/96)1.2350.2210.23±0.08 (47/128)0.24±0.05 (15/32)−0.3640.717
 Low C4 level (<0.1 g/L)0/23 (0%)0/43 (0%)0/47 (0%)0/15 (0%)
 C3 (late pregnancy**)1.29±0.23 (27/68)1.21±0.21 (36/96)1.4580.150
 Low C3 level (late pregnancy**) (<0.9 g/L)4/27 (14.81%)1/36 (2.78%)1.6340.201
 C4 (late pregnancy**)0.27±0.08 (27/68)0.21±0.06 (36/96)3.0030.004
 Low C4 level (<0.1 g/L)0/27 (0%)1/36 (2.7%)/1.000
Autoantibody§
 Anti-Ro5257/64 (89.06%)79/94 (84.4%)0.8010.371105/122 (86.07%)27/32 (84.38%)0.0001.000
 Anti-Ro6056/64 (87.50%)78/94 (82.98%)0.6040.437105/122 (86.07%)25/32 (78.13%)0.6860.407
 Anti-LA30/64 (46.88%)37/94 (39.36%)0.8800.34852/122 (42.62%)12/32 (37.50%)0.2740.601
 APL1/30 (3.33%)10/53 (18.87%)2.7830.0959/60 (15.00%)2/21 (9.52%)0.0001.000
  • Data are mean±SD, n (%) or n/N (%). For variables with missing data, denominators are reported.

  • *Adjusted data after excluding ectopic pregnancies and hydatidiform moles.

  • †Mean±SD.

  • ‡Patients diagnosed during pregnancy were not included.

  • §Number with the percentages between brackets.

  • ¶There was data loss.

  • **After 28 weeks of pregnancy.

  • APL, antiphospholipid antibody; ART, assisted reproductive technology; ASA, aspirin; CyA, ciclosporin A; GC, glucocorticoid; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; LMWH, low-molecular-weight heparin; n, number of deliveries; pSS, primary Sjögren’s syndrome.